Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Picea > Picea glauca

Picea glauca (Canadian spruce; White spruce; Alberta spruce)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Rus; Spa

Wikipedia Abstract

Picea glauca, the white spruce, is a species of spruce native to the northern temperate and boreal forests in North America. Picea glauca was originally native from central Alaska all through the east, across southern/central Canada to the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. It now has become naturalized southward into the far northern USA border states like Montana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine; there is also an isolated population in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. It is also known as Canadian spruce, skunk spruce, cat spruce, Black Hills spruce, western white spruce, Alberta white spruce, and Porsild spruce.
View Wikipedia Record: Picea glauca



Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [3]  16.4 feet (5 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  None
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Very Rich
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  60 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Low
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Summer
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Janka Hardness [4]  480 lbf (218 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  30 inches (76 cm)
Scent [3]  The crushed leaves are quite aromatic. Some people find the smell distasteful saying that it is like skunks, whilst others say it has a pleasant smell like blackcurrants or mouldy grapefruit.
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Low
Seeds Per [2]  186400 / lb (410941 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.4
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting; The cultivar 'Denstat' has been recommended; The leaves have been burnt to repel insects; Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes and to make baskets etc; The rotten, dried, finely powdered wood has been used as a baby powder and as a treatment for skin rashes; The bark is a source of tannin; A yellow-brown dye can be obtained from the rotten wood; The pitch obtained from the trunk can be used as a waterproofing sealant in canoes; Wood - straight-grained, resilient, light, soft, not strong. Used for construction and as a source of pulp for paper making; The resonance of the wood, and its capacity to transmit vibrations, make it an ideal wood for guitars, violins, piano soundboards etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  Slow
View Plants For A Future Record : Picea glauca

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Denali Biosphere Reserve 1932364 Alaska, United States
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Katmai National Park and Preserve Ib 421782 Alaska, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve Ib 386679 Alaska, United States
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Pipestone National Monument V 326 Minnesota, United States
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wind Cave National Park II 29471 South Dakota, United States
Winisk River Provincial Park II 434735 Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada


Emblem of

South Dakota


Abagrotis alternata (greater red dart)[6]
Acleris hudsoniana[6]
Acleris variana (Black-headed budworm)[6]
Acronicta fragilis (fragile dagger)[6]
Adelges abietis (Aphid)[7]
Adelges laricis[7]
Adelges viridis[7]
Amorbia humerosana[6]
Anacamptodes vellivolata[6]
Aphelia alleniana[6]
Archips alberta[6]
Archips dissitana[6]
Archips oporana[6]
Archips packardiana[6]
Archips strianus[6]
Argyresthia laricella[6]
Argyresthia picea[6]
Argyrotaenia occultana[6]
Argyrotaenia tabulana[6]
Argyrotaenia velutinana[6]
Balsa tristrigella[6]
Barbara mappana[6]
Brachylomia algens[6]
Bupalus piniaria[7]
Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Carnation Tortrix)[7]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[6]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[6]
Caripeta divisata (gray spruce looper)[6]
Caripeta piniata[6]
Chionodes continuella[6]
Choristoneura biennis[6]
Choristoneura conflictana (Large Aspen Tortrix)[6]
Choristoneura fumiferana (eastern spruce budworm)[6]
Choristoneura pinus (Jack Pine Budworm)[6]
Cinara costata[7]
Cinara piceae[7]
Cinara pilicornis[7]
Cinara pruinosa[7]
Clemensia albata[6]
Clepsis spectrana (Cyclamen Tortrix)[6]
Coleotechnites atrupictella[6]
Coleotechnites blastovora[6]
Coleotechnites ducharmei[6]
Coleotechnites martini[6]
Coleotechnites piceaella (Orange Spruce Needleminer)[6]
Cydia rana[6]
Cydia strobilella <Unverified Name>[7]
Cydia youngana[6]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[6]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[6]
Dasychira vagans[6]
Dioryctria abietella[7]
Dioryctria abietivorella[6]
Dioryctria reniculelloides[6]
Dolichomia thymetusalis[6]
Elaphria versicolor (Variegated Midget)[6]
Elatobium abietinum (Spruce aphid)[7]
Endothenia albolineana[6]
Entephria multivagata[6]
Enypia griseata[6]
Enypia venata[6]
Epermenia albapunctella[6]
Epinotia nanana[6]
Epinotia normanana[6]
Epinotia subsequana[7]
Epinotia vagana[6]
Erethizon dorsatus (common porcupine)[8]
Eufidonia discospilata[6]
Eufidonia notataria (Powder Moth)[6]
Eulithis explanata[6]
Eupithecia abietaria (Cloaked Pug Moth)[6]
Eupithecia albicapitata[6]
Eupithecia annulata[6]
Eupithecia bradorata[6]
Eupithecia casloata[6]
Eupithecia columbiata[6]
Eupithecia columbrata[6]
Eupithecia filmata[6]
Eupithecia fletcherata (Fletcher's Larch Looper)[6]
Eupithecia fumosa[6]
Eupithecia graefii[6]
Eupithecia harrisonata[6]
Eupithecia lariciata (Larch Pug)[6]
Eupithecia luteata[6]
Eupithecia misturata[6]
Eupithecia mutata (cloaked pug)[6]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[6]
Eupithecia russeliata[6]
Eupithecia transcanadata[6]
Eupithecia usurpata[6]
Eupsilia sidus[6]
Eutrapela clemataria[6]
Gabriola dyari[6]
Grammia turbans[6]
Hyalophora columbia (Columbia Silkmoth)[6]
Hydriomena californiata[6]
Hydriomena divisaria[6]
Hydriomena furcata (July Highflyer)[6]
Hydriomena irata[6]
Hydriomena marinata[6]
Hydriomena renunciata[6]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[6]
Hypoprepia fucosa (painted lichen moth)[6]
Incisalia lanoraieensis[6]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[6]
Itame loricaria[6]
Kaltenbachiola strobi[7]
Lambdina fiscellaria (hemlock looper)[6]
Litholomia napaea[6]
Lithophane innominata (Nameless Pinion)[6]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[6]
Loxia leucoptera (White-winged Crossbill)[8]
Mamestra curialis[6]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[6]
Mindarus obliquus[7]
Nemoria mimosaria (White-fringed Emerald)[6]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[6]
Nepytia umbrosaria[6]
Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm)[6]
Palthis angulalis (Dark-spotted Palthis)[6]
Panthea acronyctoides (Black Zigzag)[6]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[6]
Paralobesia piceana[6]
Pero behrensaria[6]
Pero morrisonaria (Morrison's Pero)[6]
Physokermes hemicryphus (small spruce-bud scale)[9]
Pikonema alaskensis (yellowheaded spruce sawfly)[10]
Pineus similis[7]
Pyrrhia exprimens (Purple-lined Sallow)[6]
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii[10]
Semiothisa granitata[6]
Semiothisa oweni[6]
Solenobia walshella[6]
Sparganothis directana[6]
Sparganothis tristriata[6]
Sparganothis unifasciana[6]
Sphinx gordius (apple sphinx)[6]
Sphinx poecila (Poecila Sphinx)[6]
Synaxis pallulata[6]
Syngrapha abstrusa (Abstruse False Looper)[6]
Syngrapha alias (Hooked Silver Y)[6]
Syngrapha celsa (Western Conifer Looper)[6]
Syngrapha rectangula (Salt and Pepper Looper)[6]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[6]
Syngrapha viridisigma[6]
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)[8]
Tetracis cachexiata (White Slant-line)[6]
Thallophaga hyperborea (Northern Thallophaga)[6]
Tolype dayi[6]
Tolype laricis[6]
Tryblidiopsis pinastri[10]
Xenotemna pallorana[6]
Xestia mustelina[6]
Xestia praevia[6]
Xylotype capax[6]
Zeiraphera canadensis (Spruce Bud Moth)[6]
Zeiraphera diniana[6]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[6]
Zenophleps lignicolorata[6]
Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle)[8]


Parasitized by 
Chrysobothris pusilla[10]
Chrysomyxa abietis[10]
Shelter for 
Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle)[8]

Range Map




Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8Making The Forest And Tundra Wildlife Connection
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access