Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus banksiana

Pinus banksiana (Hudson Bay pine; Jack pine; Black pine; Banksian pine)

Synonyms: Pinus divaricata; Pinus hudsonica; Pinus rupestris; Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata
Language: Algonquin; Chi; Cre; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Rus; Slo; Spa

Wikipedia Abstract

Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is an eastern North American pine. Its native range in Canada is east of the Rocky Mountains from the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories to Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, and the north-central and northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana and northwest Pennsylvania. It is also known as grey pine and scrub pine.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus banksiana


Height [3]  39 feet (12 m)
Width [3]  16.4 feet (5 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Moderate
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 2 Low Temperature: -50 F° (-45.6 C°) → -40 F° (-40 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Yellow
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Late Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  50 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Fall
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  570 lbf (259 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  131040 / lb (288893 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Erect
Specific Gravity [5]  0.43
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; Various native North American Indian tribes made a string from the long roots of this species and used it to stitch the bark of their canoes; In a sandy soil, the roots of this species extend near the surface of the soil for perhaps 10 metres and are easy to pull out of the ground for their entire length. When gathered, they were made into coils and sunk beneath the surface of water until the outer bark had loosened from the root. They were then peeled and split in half, each half being a serviceable cord for sewing together canoes and bark strips intended for the roofs of wigwams and other purposes; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc; Wood - fairly light, soft, coarse, weak; It weighs 27lb per cubic foot; It is mainly used for fuel, though occasionally also for posts, pulp and lumber;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus banksiana

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Elk Island National Park II 47171 Alberta, Canada
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Superior Provincial Park IV 351011 Ontario, Canada
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Woodland Caribou Provincial Wilderness Park Provincial Park II 1072124 Ontario, Canada


Amorbia humerosana[6]
Anacamptodes vellivolata[6]
Aphelia alleniana[6]
Archips packardiana[6]
Argyrotaenia pinatubana[6]
Argyrotaenia tabulana[6]
Campaea perlata (light emerald)[6]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[6]
Caripeta divisata (gray spruce looper)[6]
Caripeta piniata[6]
Choristoneura conflictana (Large Aspen Tortrix)[6]
Choristoneura fumiferana (eastern spruce budworm)[6]
Choristoneura pinus (Jack Pine Budworm)[6]
Cinara pinea[7]
Cinara pini[7]
Coleotechnites canusella[6]
Coleotechnites coniferella[6]
Cydia toreuta (Eastern Pine Seedworm Moth)[6]
Dasychira leucophaea[6]
Dasychira manto[6]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[6]
Dasychira vagans[6]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[8]
Dioryctria abietivorella[6]
Dioryctria banksiella[6]
Dioryctria disclusa[6]
Dioryctria ponderosae[6]
Dolichomia thymetusalis[6]
Elaphria versicolor (Variegated Midget)[6]
Euchlaena madusaria[6]
Eucosma gloriola[6]
Eucosma monitorana[6]
Eucosma sonomana (Western Pineshoot Borer)[6]
Eufidonia notataria (Powder Moth)[6]
Eupithecia annulata[6]
Eupithecia filmata[6]
Eupithecia gibsonata[6]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[6]
Exoteleia dodecella[6]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[6]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[6]
Hypoprepia miniata[6]
Incisalia eryphon[6]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[6]
Lapara bombycoides (Northern Pine Sphinx)[6]
Litholomia napaea[6]
Lithophane baileyi[6]
Lithophane lepida[6]
Matsucoccus banksianae[9]
Neodiprion dubiosus (brownheaded jack pine sawfly)[10]
Neodiprion lecontei (redheaded pine sawfly)[10]
Neodiprion rugifrons (redheaded jack pine sawfly)[10]
Neodiprion swainei (Swaine jack pine sawfly)[11]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[6]
Panthea acronyctoides (Black Zigzag)[6]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[6]
Panthea pallescens[6]
Papestra quadrata[6]
Paralobesia piceana[6]
Platynota idaeusalis[6]
Pococera robustella (Pine Webworm)[6]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[8]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[7]
Rhyacionia adana (Adana Tip Moth)[6]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[6]
Rhyacionia busckana[6]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[6]
Rhyacionia granti[6]
Rhyacionia sonia[6]
Semiothisa banksianae[6]
Semiothisa bicolorata[6]
Semiothisa bisignata (redheaded inchworm)[6]
Semiothisa distribuaria[6]
Semiothisa minorata[6]
Semiothisa oweni[6]
Semiothisa transitaria[6]
Sparganothis tristriata[6]
Sparganothis unifasciana[6]
Syngrapha abstrusa (Abstruse False Looper)[6]
Syngrapha alias (Hooked Silver Y)[6]
Syngrapha epigaea (Pirate Looper Moth)[6]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[6]
Tolype laricis[6]
Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)[9]
Zale duplicata (Pine False Looper Zale)[6]
Zale helata (Brown-spotted Zale)[6]
Zale metatoides (Washed-out Zale)[6]
Zale obliqua (Oblique Zale)[6]
Zale submediana (Gray Spring Zale)[6]
Zeiraphera diniana[6]
Zelleria haimbachi (Pine Needle Sheathminer)[6]


Parasitized by 
Endocronartium harknessii[11]

Range Map

N North America, from Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania to Northwest Territories and Alberta.. TDWG: 70 NUN NWT-MK 71 ABT BRC MAN SAS 72 NBR NSC ONT QUE 74 MIN WIS 75 INI MAI MIC NWH NWY; N. North America, from Nova Scotia and Pennsylvania to Northwest Territories and Alberta TDWG: 70 NUN NWT-MK 71 ABT BRC MAN SAS 72 NBR NSC ONT QUE 74 MIN WIS 75 INI MAI MIC NWH NWY;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
9Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
10THE CHEMICAL FEEDING ECOLOGY OF Neodiprion dubiosus SCHEDL, N. rugifrons MIDD., AND N. lecontei (FITCH) ON JACK PINE (Pinus banksiana LAMB.), BETH A. SCHUH and D.M. BENJAMIN, Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 10, No. 7, 1984
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access