Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus echinata

Pinus echinata (Shortleaf pine; Arkansas pine)

Synonyms: Pinus mitis; Pinus royleana; Pinus squarrosa; Pinus taeda var. echinata; Pinus taeda var. variabilis; Pinus variabilis; Pinus virginiana var. echinata
Language: Chi; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus echinata, the shortleaf pine, is a species of pine native to the eastern United States from southern most New York State, south to northern Florida, west to eastern Oklahoma, and southwest to eastern Texas. The tree is variable in form, sometimes straight, sometimes crooked, with an irregular crown. This tree reaches heights of 20–30 metres (65–100 ft) with a trunk diameter of 0.5–0.9 metres (1 ft 8 in–2 ft 11 in).
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus echinata


Height [3]  115 feet (35 m)
Width [1]  30 feet (9.1 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  High
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  6 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  690 lbf (313 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  48000 / lb (105822 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.51
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; A source of turpentine; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - very variable in quality, it is usually coarse grained, hard, strong and heavy; It weighs 38lb per cubic foot; A valuable timber in its native range because it is less resinous than most pines and is easily worked; It is used for general construction, veneer, low-grade furniture, lumber and pulp; The wood weighs 38lb per cubic foot;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus echinata

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area V 7622 Georgia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge VI 66133 Arkansas, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Hobcaw Barony (North Inlet) National Estuarine Research Reserve 7585 South Carolina, United States
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park V 1926 Alabama, United States
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park III 2897 Georgia, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Ocmulgee National Monument V 693 Georgia, United States
Oconee National Forest Botanical Reserve 306 Georgia, United States  
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Santee Coastal Reserve and Washo Reserve State Habitat Area IV 20850 South Carolina, United States  
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States


Battaristis vittella[6]
Chionaspis heterophyllae (pine scale)[7]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[7]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[6]
Coloradia pandora (Pandora moth)[6]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[8]
Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle)[9]
Dynaspidiotus californicus <Unverified Name>[7]
Eucosma cocana[6]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[6]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[6]
Lambdina pellucidaria (eastern pinelooper)[6]
Lophocampa ingens[6]
Loxia curvirostra (Red Crossbill)[10]
Matsucoccus gallicolus[7]
Moodna pallidostrinella[6]
Nepytia semiclusaria (pine conelet looper)[6]
Oracella acuta (acute mealybug)[7]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[6]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[8]
Pseudophilippia quaintancii (wooly pine scale)[7]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[6]
Rhyacionia rigidana[6]
Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)[7]
Toumeyella pini (striped pine scale)[7]
Zale confusa[6]
Zelleria haimbachi (Pine Needle Sheathminer)[6]


Parasitized by 
Chalcophora virginiensis[10]
Chrysobothris pusilla[10]

Range Map

E and SE USA, from New York to E Texas accross 22 states.. TDWG: 74 MSO OKL 75 CNT NWJ NWY OHI PEN WVA 77 TEX 78 ALA ARK DEL FLA GEO KTY LOU MRY MSI NCA SCA TEN VRG WDC; Eastern and southeastern U.S.A., from New York to E Texas accross 22 states. TDWG: 74 MSO OKL 75 CNT NWJ NWY OHI PEN WVA 77 TEX 78 ALA ARK DEL FLA GEO KTY LOU MRY MSI NCA SCA TEN VRG WDC;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
8New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
9Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), James R. Meeker, Wayne N. Dixon, John L. Foltz, and Thomas R. Fasulo, University of Florida
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access