Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus monticola

Pinus monticola (Western white pine; Mountain white pine; Silver pine)

Synonyms: Pinus grozelierii; Pinus monticola var. digitata; Pinus monticola var. minima; Pinus porphyrocarpa; Pinus strobus subsp. monticola; Pinus strobus var. monticola; Strobus monticola
Language: Chi; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Rus

Wikipedia Abstract

Western white pine (Pinus monticola) also called silver pine, and California mountain pine, in the family Pinaceae, is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the northern Rocky Mountains. The tree extends down to sea level in many areas, particularly in Oregon and Washington. It is the state tree of Idaho, and is sometimes known as the Idaho pine.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus monticola


Height [3]  197 feet (60 m)
Width [1]  37 feet (11.4 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [2]  Intermediate
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  420 lbf (191 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  3.3 feet (102 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  27040 / lb (59613 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [5]  0.38
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - straight and close-grained, soft, light, not strong, very durable, resistant to shrinking and warping. An important timber tree, it is used in making doors, shelves, flooring, construction etc; The wood has dark knots, making it attractive for panelling;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus monticola

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada

Emblem of



Argyrotaenia tabulana[6]
Calliprason pallidus[7]
Callospermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)[8]
Caripeta aequaliaria[6]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[6]
Dasychira plagiata (Northern Pine Tussock)[6]
Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus (Sooty Grouse)[9]
Dioryctria abietivorella[6]
Dioryctria monticolella[6]
Dioryctria zimmermani[6]
Enypia griseata[6]
Enypia packardata[6]
Enypia venata[6]
Eucosma bobana[6]
Eucosma rescissoriana[6]
Eupithecia annulata[6]
Eupithecia harrisonata[6]
Eupithecia longipalpata[6]
Eupithecia ornata[6]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[6]
Gabriola dyari[6]
Hydriomena speciosata[6]
Incisalia eryphon[6]
Itame exauspicata[6]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[10]
Marmara fasciella[6]
Matsucoccus paucicicatrices[11]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[6]
Neoalcis californiaria (Brown-lined Looper)[6]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[6]
Nepytia phantasmaria (phantom hemlock looper)[6]
Nepytia umbrosaria[6]
Ocnerostoma piniariella[6]
Papestra cristifera[6]
Pero behrensaria[6]
Pityococcus ferrisi[11]
Polix coloradella[6]
Sabulodes edwardsata[6]
Semiothisa adonis[6]
Stenoporpia pulmonaria[6]
Syngrapha alias (Hooked Silver Y)[6]
Syngrapha celsa (Western Conifer Looper)[6]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[6]
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)[12]
Thallophaga hyperborea (Northern Thallophaga)[6]


Parasitized by 
Chrysophana placida[13]
Melanophila acuminata[13]

Range Map

W North America, from British Columbia to California, most widespread in the north of its range. TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 IDA MNT ORE WAS 76 CAL NEV; W North America, from British Columbia to California, most widespread in the north of its range.. TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 IDA MNT ORE WAS 76 CAL NEV;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
8Spermophilus lateralis, Molly A. Bartels and Doug P. Thompson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 440, pp. 1-8 (1993)
10Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
11Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
12Tamiasciurus douglasii, Michael A. Steele, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 630, pp. 1-8 (1999)
13Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access