Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus pinaster

Pinus pinaster (maritime pine)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus pinaster, the maritime pine or cluster pine, is a pine native to Mediterranean region.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus pinaster


Invasive Species

Pinus pinaster, originally from the Mediterranean Basin, has been planted in temperate regions within and outside its natural range for a wide range of reasons. It regenerates readily almost everywhere it is planted and in many places it invades natural shrubland, forest and grassland. Pinus pinaster forms dense thickets which supress native plants, changes fire regimes and hydrological properties and alters habitats for many animals.
View ISSG Record: Pinus pinaster


Height [2]  66 feet (20 m)
Width [2]  23 feet (7 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Dispersal Mode [5]  Anemochory, Autochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [3]  610 lbf (277 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [6]  0.412
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  Often planted as a shelterbelt along exposed coasts; It is very tolerant of maritime exposure, but may require staking when it is young; A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; This species is the major source of resin in Europe, it is extensively planted, especially along the Atlantic coast of Europe; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - rough carpentry, boxes, pit props etc. A source of pulp wood;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus pinaster

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  


Ampedus sanguineus <Unverified Name>[7]
Arhopalus ferus[7]
Bupalus piniaria[8]
Calliprason pallidus[9]
Cecidomyia pini[7]
Cinara pineti[7]
Clavigesta sylvestrana[8]
Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana pine mealybug)[10]
Crooktacalles certus[9]
Cryphalus abietis[7]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[9]
Dendrodochium pinastri[11]
Dendrolimus pini (Pine-tree Lappet)[7]
Dioryctria mutatella[7]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[7]
Gastrodes grossipes grossipes[7]
Gueriniella serratulae[10]
Hapleginella laevifrons[7]
Hylastes angustatus[7]
Hylastes ater (Black pine bark beetle)[7]
Hyloicus pinastri <Unverified Name>[7]
Ips sexdentatus[7]
Kalotermes brouni[9]
Lachnellula subtilissima (Conifer Disco)[11]
Leucaspis lowi (Hartig's pine scale)[10]
Leucaspis pusilla (pine scale)[10]
Magdalis memnonia[7]
Matsucoccus feytaudi[10]
Melanophila acuminata[7]
Olethreutes bifasciana <Unverified Name>[7]
Orthotomicus erosus[7]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[8]
Phenacoccus yerushalmi[10]
Piniphila bifasciana[8]
Pissodes castaneus[7]
Pissodes validirostris[7]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[9]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[7]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[7]
Sirex noctilio[7]
Sphinx pinastri (Pine Hawkmoth)[8]
Stolotermes inopinus[9]
Stolotermes ruficeps[9]
Tenenbrosoma albicoma <Unverified Name>[9]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[7]
Vitula biviella[8]
Xeris spectrum <Unverified Name>[7]


Parasitized by 
Coleosporium tussilaginis[11]
Cronartium pini[11]
Laimaphelenchus australis <Unverified Name>[12]
Melampsora populnea[11]


SW & S Europe; N Africa, Morocco, border between Algeria and Tunisia TDWG: 12 BAL COR FRA-FR POR SAR SPA-SP 13 ITA-IT SAR SIC-SI 20 ALG MOR-MO TUN; SW and S Europe; N Africa, Morocco, border between Algeria and Tunisia. TDWG: 12 BAL COR FRA-FR POR SAR SPA-SP 13 ITA-IT SAR SIC-SI 20 ALG MOR-MO TUN;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
4USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
5Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
6Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
12Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access