Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus pinea

Pinus pinea (Stone pine; Umbrella pine; Italian stone pine)

Synonyms: Apinus pinea; Pinea esculenta; Pinus fastuosa; Pinus maderiensis; Pinus pinea var. maderiensis; Pinus sativa
Language: Chi; Dut; Fre; French; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Italian; Por; Rus; Spa; Spanish; Tur


Height [2]  33 feet (10 m)
Width [2]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Dispersal Mode [4]  Autochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [5]  0.5
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Yields a resin and turpentine; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood. Used for carpentry, furniture making etc;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus pinea

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Akyatan Lagoon 36324 Adana, Turkey      
Buskett - Girgenti Area 557 Malta  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  


Acleris abietana[6]
Argyresthia fundella[6]
Blastesthia turionella (Pine Bud Moth)[6]
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)[7]
Cinara acutirostris[8]
Clavigesta sylvestrana[6]
Columba arquatrix (African Olive Pigeon)[9]
Cydia illutana[6]
Dendrolimus pini (Pine-tree Lappet)[8]
Epinotia nigricana[6]
Epinotia proximana[6]
Epinotia rubiginosana[6]
Eriococcus araucariae (Felted pine coccid)[10]
Hapleginella laevifrons[8]
Kalotermes brouni[11]
Leucaspis knemion[10]
Leucaspis lowi (Hartig's pine scale)[10]
Leucaspis pini (Austrian pine scale)[10]
Lindingaspis rossi (araucaria black scale)[7]
Lophodermium conigenum[7]
Neonectria fuckeliana[7]
Palaeococcus fuscipennis[10]
Pissodes validirostris[8]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[8]
Sirex noctilio[8]
Sparganothis pilleriana[6]
Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni[6]
Thecodiplosis brachyntera[8]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[8]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[6]
Zeiraphera rufimitrana[6]


Parasitized by 
Cronartium pini[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Kew Millennium Seed Bank Partnership


Mediterranean Europe and Near East (doubtfully native in many areas of E Mediterranean) TDWG: 12 BAL COR FRA-FR FRA-MO POR SAR SPA-SP 13 ALB GRC ITA-IT KRI SIC-SI 34 CYP EAI LBS-LB TUR; Mediterranean Europe and Near East (doubtfully native in many areas of E Mediterranean). TDWG: 12 BAL COR FRA-FR FRA-MO POR SAR SPA-SP 13 ALB GRC ITA-IT KRI SIC-SI 34 CYP EAI LBS-LB TUR;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
4Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
5Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository.
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
9del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
10Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access