Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus sylvestris

Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a species of pine that is native to Europe and Asia, ranging from western Europe to eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia. In the north of its range, it occurs from sea level to 1,000 m, while in the south of its range it is a high altitude mountain tree, growing at 1,200–2,600 metres (3,900–8,500 ft) altitude.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus sylvestris



Height [3]  82 feet (25 m)
Width [3]  33 feet (10 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [6]  Very Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Dispersal Mode [7]  Anemochory
Drought Tolerance [2]  Medium
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  660 lbf (299 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Slow
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Seeds Per [2]  70720 / lb (155911 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [8]  0.47
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; A reddish yellow dye is obtained from the cones; This tree yields resin and turpentine; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used in perfumery and medicinally; A fibre from the inner bark is used to make ropes; The roots are very resinous and burn well. They can be used as a candle substitute; The leaves are used as a packing material; The fibrous material is stripped out of the leaves and is used to fill pillows, cushions and as a packing material; Trees are very wind resistant and quite fast growing. They can be planted as a shelterbelt, succeeding in maritime exposure; Wood - light, soft, not strong, elastic, durable, rich in resin. Used in construction, furniture, paper manufacture etc.; A good fuel but it is somewhat smokey;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus sylvestris

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Basegi Zapovednik Ia 93739 Perm, Russia
Beinn Eighe National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Cairngorms 142543 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Calvin College Ecosystem Preserve 90 Michigan, United States
Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve V 619089 Jilin, China  
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Dee Estuary/ Aber Dyfrdwy 39057 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Desecheo National Wildlife Refuge   Puerto Rico, United States
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Galichia Gora Zapovednik Ia 568 Lipetsk, Russia
Galloway Oakwoods 877 Scotland, United Kingdom
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Ingleborough Complex 14256 England, United Kingdom
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Johnstown Flood National Memorial VI 175 Pennsylvania, United States
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Lower Derwent Valley 2263 England, United Kingdom
Lower River Spey – Spey Bay 1613 Scotland, United Kingdom
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Mendip Limestone Grasslands 1032 England, United Kingdom
Migneint–Arenig–Dduallt 49343 Wales, United Kingdom
Moor House – Upper Teesdale 95867 England, United Kingdom
Moorfoot Hills 21001 Scotland, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve IV 12219 Moscow, Russia
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
Saratoga National Historical Park   New York, United States
Sayano-Shushenskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 964620 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Sidmouth to West Bay 2217 England, United Kingdom
South Pennine Moors 160577 England, United Kingdom  
South Wight Maritime 49082 England, United Kingdom
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Tsentral'no-Chernozemny Biosphere Reserve Ia 13064 Kursk, Russia
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Western Michigan University's Asylum Lake Preserve 274 Michigan, United States
Zhuvintas Zapovednik 18223 Lithuania  



Acalles ptinoides[9]
Acanthocinus aedilis (timberman beetle)[10]
Acantholyda erythrocephala (pine false webworm)[9]
Acantholyda posticalis <Unverified Name>[9]
Acompocoris pygmaeus[10]
Agapanthia villosoviridescens (Golden-bloomed Grey Longhorn)[10]
Agrotis vestigialis (Archer's Dart)[11]
Aguriahana germari[9]
Alloeotomus gothicus[9]
Amorbia humerosana[11]
Ampedus balteatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Ampedus cinnabarinus <Unverified Name>[9]
Ampedus elongantulus <Unverified Name>[9]
Ampedus pomonae <Unverified Name>[9]
Ampedus sanguineus <Unverified Name>[9]
Ampedus sanguinolentus <Unverified Name>[9]
Anacamptodes vellivolata[11]
Anastrangalia sanguinolenta[9]
Anthaxia quadripunctata <Unverified Name>[12]
Anthonomus britannus[9]
Anthonomus varians[9]
Anthostomella conorum[10]
Anthostomella formosa[10]
Anthostomella pedemontana[10]
Anungitea continua[10]
Aphanobasidium albidum[10]
Aphanobasidium pseudotsugae[10]
Aphelia alleniana[11]
Aphelia viburniana[11]
Aphrophora corticea[12]
Aradus cinnamomeus <Unverified Name>[9]
Archips cerasivorana[11]
Archips oporana[11]
Argyrotaenia velutinana[11]
Arhopalus ferus[9]
Armillaria ostoyae (Dark Honey Fungus)[10]
Ascocorticium anomalum[10]
Assara terebrella[9]
Athelopsis baculifera[10]
Atomaria pulchra[9]
Aulonium ruficorne <Unverified Name>[9]
Auriscalpium vulgare (Earpick Fungus)[10]
Balclutha punctata[12]
Barbara margarotana[11]
Batrachedra pinicolella[11]
Battaristis vittella[11]
Belemnospora pinicola[10]
Blastesthia posticana[11]
Blastesthia turionella (Pine Bud Moth)[11]
Blera fallax (Pine hoverlfy)[9]
Bloxamia bohemica[10]
Botryobasidium ellipsosporum[10]
Botryobasidium intertextum[10]
Botryobasidium laeve[10]
Botryobasidium obtusisporum[10]
Botryohypochnus isabellinus[10]
Brachonyx pineti[9]
Brunnipila clandestina[10]
Bucculatrix ulmella[11]
Bupalus piniaria[11]
Calycina venceslai[10]
Camarops tubulina[10]
Camarosporium pini[10]
Camptozygum aequale[9]
Carduelis carduelis (European Goldfinch)[10]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[11]
Cecidomyia pini[9]
Cedestis farinatella[11]
Cedestis gysseleniella <Unverified Name>[9]
Cedestis subfasciella[11]
Ceraceomyces sublaevis[10]
Ceraceomyces tessulatus[10]
Ceratellopsis acuminata[10]
Ceriporia viridans[10]
Ceriporiopsis gilvescens[10]
Chaetospermum chaetosporum[10]
Chalara affinis[10]
Chalara cylindrosperma[10]
Chalara fusidioides[10]
Chalara urceolata[10]
Cheiromycella microscopica[10]
Chionaspis heterophyllae (pine scale)[13]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[13]
Choristoneura pinus (Jack Pine Budworm)[11]
Choristoneura rosaceana (Oblique Banded Leaf Roller)[10]
Chrysomphalina chrysophylla (Golden Navel)[10]
Cimberis attelaboides[9]
Cinara nuda[9]
Cinara pinea[9]
Cinara pineti[9]
Cinara pini[9]
Cinara pinihabitans[9]
Cinereomyces lindbladii[10]
Cis punctulatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cistella acuum[10]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[11]
Clavigesta purdeyi (Pine leaf-mining Moth)[11]
Clavigesta sylvestrana[11]
Clonostachys candelabrum[10]
Clonostachys compactiuscula[10]
Coloradia pandora (Pandora moth)[11]
Coloradia velda[11]
Coniochaeta malacotricha[10]
Coniocleonus hollbergi <Unverified Name>[9]
Connopus acervatus[10]
Contarinia baeri[9]
Coptomma sulcatum[14]
Corticeus fraxini <Unverified Name>[9]
Cosmotriche lobulina[11]
Crumenulopsis sororia[10]
Crustomyces subabruptus[10]
Cryphalus abietis[9]
Cryptococcus fagisuga (beech scale)[13]
Cryptophagus angustus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cudoniella rubicunda[10]
Cyclaneusma minus[10]
Cydia cognatana[11]
Cydia conicolana[11]
Cydia coniferana[11]
Cydia cosmophorana[11]
Cylindrotrichum oligospermum[10]
Cymolomia hartigiana[11]
Cytospora pini[10]
Cytotriplospora pini[10]
Dacrymyces chrysocomus[10]
Dacrymyces chrysospermus (Orange Jelly)[10]
Dacrymyces macnabbii[10]
Dacrymyces ovisporus[10]
Dacrymyces variisporus[10]
Dacryobolus sudans[10]
Dactylaria parvispora[10]
Dactylosporium macropus[10]
Decantha borkhausenii[11]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[14]
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)[9]
Dendroctonus terebrans (black turpentine beetle)[15]
Dendrodochium citrinum[10]
Dendrolimus pini (Pine-tree Lappet)[11]
Desmazierella acicola[10]
Devriesia staurophora[10]
Diaspidiotus juglansregiae (English walnut scale)[13]
Dichrooscytus rufipennis[9]
Dioryctria abietella[11]
Dioryctria abietivorella[11]
Dioryctria disclusa[11]
Dioryctria mongolicella[11]
Dioryctria mutatella[9]
Dioryctria ponderosae[11]
Dioryctria sylvestrella[11]
Dioryctria zimmermani[11]
Diplomitoporus flavescens[10]
Diprion pini <Unverified Name>[9]
Diprion similis (introduced pine sawfly)[9]
Ditiola peziziformis[10]
Ditula angustiorana (Red-barred Tortrix)[11]
Dryocoetes autographus[9]
Durella suecica[10]
Dynaspidiotus abietis (hemlock scale)[9]
Eilema sororcula (Orange Footman)[9]
Elasmostethus tristriatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Elateroides dermestoides[9]
Elatophilus nigricornis <Unverified Name>[9]
Endophragmiella pinicola[10]
Epinotia rubiginosana[11]
Epirrita autumnata <Unverified Name>[9]
Epuraea thoracica <Unverified Name>[9]
Erastia salmonicolor (Salmon Bracket)[10]
Eremocoris plebejus[9]
Eremotes ater[9]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[9]
Ernobius pini <Unverified Name>[9]
Eucosma gloriola[11]
Eufidonia notataria (Powder Moth)[11]
Eulachnus agilis[9]
Eulachnus brevipilosus[9]
Eulachnus rileyi[9]
Euophryum confine <Unverified Name>[9]
Eupithecia abietaria (Cloaked Pug Moth)[11]
Eupithecia indigata (Ochreous Pug Moth)[11]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[11]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[11]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[9]
Exidia saccharina[10]
Exoteleia dodecella[11]
Exoteleia nepheos[11]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[11]
Flammula pinicola[10]
Fomitopsis pinicola[12]
Galerina stylifera[10]
Gastrodes grossipes grossipes[12]
Gilpinia frutetorum <Unverified Name>[9]
Gilpinia pallida <Unverified Name>[9]
Gilpinia virens <Unverified Name>[9]
Gliomastix luzulae[10]
Glis glis (fat dormouse)[16]
Gloeoporus taxicola[10]
Gloiothele citrina[10]
Gomezmenoraspis pinicola[13]
Graellsia isabellae (Spanish Moon Moth)[11]
Gravitarmata amethystana[11]
Guepiniopsis alpina[10]
Guepiniopsis estonica[10]
Gymnopilus stabilis[10]
Gymnopus perforans (Stinking Parachute)[10]
Gymnopus putillus[10]
Hamatocanthoscypha laricionis[10]
Hapleginella laevifrons[9]
Harminius undulatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Helicogloea farinacea[10]
Helicogloea lagerheimii[10]
Hendersonia acicola[10]
Herpotrichia macrotricha[10]
Heyderia cucullata[10]
Hohenbuehelia atrocoerulea[10]
Hormiactella asetosa[10]
Hormiactella fusca[10]
Hyalopeziza millepunctata[10]
Hyaloscypha aureliella[10]
Hyaloscypha leuconica[10]
Hygrocybe grossula[10]
Hylaea fasciaria (Barred Red Moth)[11]
Hylastes angustatus[9]
Hylastes ater (Black pine bark beetle)[9]
Hylastes attenuatus[9]
Hylastes brunneus[9]
Hylastes cunicularius[9]
Hylobius abietis (pine weevil)[9]
Hyloicus pinastri <Unverified Name>[9]
Hylotrupes bajulus (old-house borer)[9]
Hylurgops palliatus[9]
Hymenoscyphus lutescens[10]
Hymenoscyphus perplexus[10]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[11]
Hyphodontia spathulata[10]
Hypochnicium bombycinum[10]
Hypochnicium erikssonii[10]
Hypochnicium geogenium[10]
Imbrasia cytherea[11]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[11]
Ips acuminatus[9]
Ips sexdentatus[9]
Ips typographus (Engraver Beetle)[9]
Irpicodon pendulus[10]
Ischnoderma resinosum[10]
Jaapia ochroleuca[10]
Junctospora pulchra[10]
Kaltenbachiola strobi[9]
Keissleriella pinicola[10]
Kneiffiella flavipora[10]
Kriegeriella mirabilis[10]
Kuehneromyces lignicola[10]
Lachnellula pulverulenta[10]
Lachnellula subtilissima (Conifer Disco)[10]
Lapara bombycoides (Northern Pine Sphinx)[11]
Lasiosphaeria phyllophila[10]
Laspeyria flexula (Beautiful Hook-tip)[9]
Lemalis aurea[10]
Lentinellus tridentinus[10]
Lepidosaphes juniperi (juniper oystershell scale)[13]
Lepidosaphes ulmi (apple oystershell scale)[9]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[10]
Leptographium lundbergii[10]
Leptosporomyces septentrionalis[10]
Leucaspis pini (Austrian pine scale)[13]
Leucaspis signoreti (Signoret's pine scale)[13]
Leucostoma curreyi[10]
Lophiostoma vagabundum[10]
Lophium mytilinum[10]
Lophodermium conigenum[10]
Lophodermium pini-excelsae[10]
Lophodermium seditiosum[10]
Lozotaeniodes formosana[11]
Lozotaeniodes formosanus <Unverified Name>[9]
Luellia cystidiata[10]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[11]
Macaria liturata <Unverified Name>[12]
Macaria signaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Macrophoma strobi[10]
Magdalis duplicata[9]
Magdalis memnonia[9]
Magdalis phlegmatica[9]
Magdalis violacea[9]
Marasmius rotula (Collared Parachute)[10]
Matsucoccus boratynskii[13]
Matsucoccus dahuriensis[13]
Matsucoccus pini[13]
Megacoelum beckeri[9]
Megastigmus pinus[9]
Melanophila acuminata[9]
Melanospora chionea[10]
Merulius tremellosus (Jelly Rot)[10]
Micraspis strobilina[10]
Microdiprion pallipes <Unverified Name>[9]
Micropterix tunbergella[9]
Microthyrium pinophyllum[10]
Minimelanolocus subulifer[10]
Mollisia fallax[10]
Monochamus sartor[10]
Mucronella calva[10]
Mycena cinerella (Mealy Bonnet)[10]
Mycena clavicularis[10]
Mycena epipterygioides[10]
Mycena purpureofusca[10]
Mycena rosella (Pink Bonnet)[10]
Mycena rubromarginata (Red Edge Bonnet)[10]
Mycena septentrionalis[10]
Mycena urania (Violet Bonnet)[10]
Mycena viridimarginata[10]
Mytilinidion scolecosporum[10]
Naemacyclus fimbriatus[10]
Nectria pseudopeziza[10]
Neodiprion sertifer (European pine sawfly)[9]
Neolentinus adhaerens (Sticky Sawgill)[10]
Neonectria fuckeliana[10]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[11]
Nudobius lentus[9]
Ocnerostoma friesei[11]
Ocnerostoma piniariella[11]
Odonticium romellii[10]
Odontopera bidentata (Scalloped Hazel)[11]
Oecophora bractella[9]
Olethreutes bifasciana <Unverified Name>[9]
Olethreutes schulziana[11]
Oncospora pinastri[10]
Oramasia hirsuta[10]
Orthops rubricatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Orthotomicus laricis[9]
Orthotomicus suturalis[9]
Orthotylus fuscescens[9]
Ostoma ferrugineum <Unverified Name>[9]
Otiorhynchus singularis[9]
Oxythrips ajugae[9]
Oxythrips bicolor <Unverified Name>[9]
Pammene ochsenheimeriana[11]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[11]
Panthea acronyctoides (Black Zigzag)[11]
Panthea coenobita[11]
Panthea furcilla (Tufted White Pine Caterpillar)[11]
Panthea pallescens[11]
Paraphotistus impressus <Unverified Name>[12]
Parasympodiella clarkii[10]
Patellina caesia[10]
Penicillium glaucoalbidum[10]
Peniophora cinerea[10]
Peniophora incarnata (Rosy Crust)[10]
Peniophora lycii[10]
Peniophora pini[10]
Peribatodes rhomboidaria (Willow Beauty)[9]
Pesotum piceae[10]
Pezicula livida[10]
Pezizella chionea[10]
Pezizella glareosa[10]
Phacidium lacerum[10]
Phaeohelotium purpureum[10]
Phaeostalagmus peregrinus[10]
Phenacoccus hystrix[13]
Phenacoccus yerushalmi[13]
Phlebia lilascens[10]
Phlebia segregata[10]
Phlebia subserialis[10]
Phlebiopsis gigantea[10]
Phloeonomus pusillus <Unverified Name>[9]
Phoenicocoris obscurellus[10]
Pholiota spumosa[10]
Pholiota subochracea[10]
Phoma herbarum[10]
Phomopsis arctii[10]
Phomopsis velata[10]
Phragmocephala elliptica[10]
Phyllobius maculicornis[9]
Phyllobius pyri (Common Leaf Weevil)[9]
Phytocoris pini[9]
Piloderma bicolor[10]
Pilophorus cinnamopterus[9]
Pineus orientalis[9]
Pineus pini (Eurasian pine adelgid)[9]
Piniphila bifasciana[11]
Pissodes castaneus[9]
Pissodes pini[9]
Pissodes validirostris[9]
Pityogenes bidentatus[9]
Pityogenes chalcographus[9]
Pityogenes quadridens[9]
Pityogenes trepanatus[9]
Pityophagus ferrugineus <Unverified Name>[9]
Pityophthorus lichtensteini[9]
Pityophthorus pubescens <Unverified Name>[9]
Plegaderus vulneratus[9]
Plesiodema pinetellum <Unverified Name>[9]
Pleurocybella porrigens[10]
Pococera robustella (Pine Webworm)[11]
Pogonocherus fasciculatus[9]
Polydrusus cervinus[9]
Polydrusus impar[12]
Polydrusus pilosus[9]
Polydrusus pterygomalis[9]
Polygraphus poligraphus[9]
Postia ceriflua[10]
Postia floriformis[10]
Postia fragilis[10]
Postia leucomallella[10]
Postia rennyi[10]
Postia sericeomollis[10]
Prociphilus pini[12]
Psathyrella solitaria[10]
Pseudocenangium succineum[10]
Pseudocercospora deightonii[10]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[14]
Pseudohelotium pineti[10]
Pseudomerulius aureus[10]
Pseudomicrodochium candidum[10]
Pseudopatellina conigena[10]
Pseudopenidiella pini[10]
Puto pini[13]
Pytho depressus <Unverified Name>[9]
Quedius plagiatus[9]
Repetobasidium mirificum[10]
Resinicium furfuraceum[10]
Retinia resinella (Pine Resin-gall Moth)[11]
Rhagium bifasciatum (two-banded longhorn beetle)[9]
Rhizophagus depressus <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhizophagus ferrugineus <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhizophagus parvulus <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhodocollybia prolixa[10]
Rhodonia placenta[10]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyaciona logaea <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyaciona pinicolana <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyaciona pinivorana <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhyacionia adana (Adana Tip Moth)[11]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[11]
Rhyacionia busckana[11]
Rhyacionia duplana (Summer shoot moth)[11]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[11]
Rhyacionia piniana[11]
Rhyacionia pinicolana[11]
Rhyacionia pinivorana (Spotted shoot moth)[11]
Rhyacionia rigidana[11]
Rhyncolus ater[9]
Rosellinia obliquata[10]
Rupicapra pyrenaica (Pyrenean chamoios)[17]
Salpingus ater <Unverified Name>[9]
Salpingus castaneus <Unverified Name>[9]
Salpingus reyi <Unverified Name>[9]
Sarea difformis[10]
Sciurus vulgaris (Eurasian red squirrel)[10]
Scopinella solani[10]
Semiothisa bicolorata[11]
Semiothisa liturata[11]
Semiothisa oweni[11]
Septocylindrium leucum[10]
Septonema fasciculare[10]
Sidera vulgaris[10]
Silvanoprus fagi[9]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[9]
Sirex noctilio[9]
Sistotrema dennisii[10]
Sistotrema diademiferum[10]
Sistotrema pistilliferum[10]
Sistotremastrum niveocremeum[10]
Skeletocutis alutacea[10]
Skeletocutis amorpha[10]
Skeletocutis kuehneri[10]
Skeletocutis subincarnata[10]
Sparganothis tristriata[11]
Sparganothis unifasciana[11]
Sphaeridium candidum[10]
Sphinx pinastri (Pine Hawkmoth)[11]
Stachylidium bicolor[10]
Stagnicola perplexa[10]
Stenurella melanura[12]
Stephanopachys substriatus[9]
Stereopsis vitellina (Roothole Rosette)[10]
Stereum sanguinolentum (Bleeding Conifer Crust)[10]
Sthenarus obscurellus <Unverified Name>[9]
Stomiopeltis pinastri[10]
Strasseria geniculata[10]
Streptopelia turtur (European Turtle-Dove)[12]
Strobilurus tenacellus (Pinecone Cap)[10]
Stropharia hornemannii (Conifer Roundhead)[10]
Strophosomus capitatus[9]
Strophosomus melanogrammus[9]
Stypella vermiformis[10]
Subulicium lautum[10]
Sympodiella acicola[10]
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus (red squirrel)[18]
Tapinella panuoides (Oyster Rollrim)[10]
Tephrocybe fuscipes[10]
Tetrao urogallus (Western Capercaillie)[19]
Thecodiplosis brachyntera[9]
Thelonectria pinea[10]
Thera britannica (Spruce Carpet Moth)[9]
Thera firmata (Pine Carpet)[11]
Thera obeliscata (Grey Pine Carpet Moth)[11]
Thera variata (Spruce Carpet)[11]
Therrya fuckelii[10]
Therrya pini[10]
Tolype laricis[11]
Tomicus minor[9]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[9]
Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)[13]
Toumeyella pini (striped pine scale)[13]
Trechispora alnicola[10]
Trechispora dimitica[10]
Trechispora hymenocystis[10]
Trechispora minima[10]
Trechispora stevensonii[10]
Trichaptum abietinum (Purplepore Bracket)[10]
Tricholomopsis decora (Prunes and Custard)[10]
Trimmatostroma scutellare[10]
Trinophylum cribratum[9]
Triposporium elegans[10]
Trisetacus pini <Unverified Name>[9]
Troposporella monospora[10]
Tryblidiopsis pinastri[10]
Tubulicrinis accedens[10]
Tubulicrinis angustus[10]
Tubulicrinis glebulosus[10]
Tubulicrinis medius[10]
Tubulicrinis propinquus[10]
Tubulicrinis subulatus[10]
Urocerus augur <Unverified Name>[9]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[9]
Valsa abietis[10]
Vibidia duodecimguttata <Unverified Name>[9]
Xenasma tulasnelloideum[10]
Xenasmatella vaga[10]
Xenosperma ludibundum[10]
Xenotemna pallorana[11]
Xeris spectrum <Unverified Name>[9]
Xeromphalina campanella (golden trumpet)[10]
Xeromphalina cauticinalis[10]
Xyela julii <Unverified Name>[9]
Xyela longula <Unverified Name>[9]
Xyleborus saxeseni <Unverified Name>[9]
Xylita laevigata <Unverified Name>[9]
Xylohypha ortmansiae[10]
Xylohypha pinicola[10]
Xyloterus lineatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Zale duplicata (Pine False Looper Zale)[11]
Zale helata (Brown-spotted Zale)[11]
Zeiraphera diniana[9]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[9]
Zelleria haimbachi (Pine Needle Sheathminer)[11]
Zignoëlla morthieri[10]
Zygimus nigriceps[9]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita gemmata (Jewelled Amanita)[12]
Amanita pantherina (Panther Amanita)[12]
Amanita phalloides (Deathcap)[12]
Amanita porphyria (Grey Veiled Amanita)[12]
Amanita rubescens[12]
Amanita submembranacea[12]
Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete)[12]
Caloboletus frustosus (Bitter Beech Bolete)[12]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[12]
Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete)[12]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[12]
Cortinarius bataillei[12]
Cortinarius cinnamomeus (Cinnamon Webcap)[12]
Cortinarius flexipes (Pelargonium Webcap)[12]
Cortinarius rubellus (Deadly Webcap)[12]
Cortinarius semisanguineus (Surprise Webcap)[12]
Cortinarius spilomeus (Freckled Webcap)[12]
Entoloma rhodopolium (Wood Pinkgill)[12]
Gymnopus peronatus (Wood Woollyfoot)[12]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[12]
Hebeloma incarnatulum[12]
Hebeloma mesophaeum (Veiled Poison Pie)[12]
Hydnum repandum (Wood Hedgehog)[12]
Hydnum rufescens (Terracotta Hedgehog)[12]
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus[12]
Inocybe cervicolor[12]
Inocybe grammata[12]
Inocybe lacera (Torn Fibrecap)[12]
Inocybe palaeotropica[12]
Krombholziella murinacea (Brown Birch Bolete)[12]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[12]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[12]
Laccaria proxima (Scurfy Deceiver)[12]
Lactarius flexuosus[12]
Lactarius fuliginosus (Sooty Milkcap)[12]
Lactarius glyciosmus (Coconut Milkcap)[12]
Lactarius helvus (Fenugreek Milkcap)[12]
Lactarius hepaticus (Liver Milkcap)[12]
Lactarius mammosus[12]
Lactarius sphagneti[12]
Lactarius turpis (Ugly Milkcap)[12]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[12]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[12]
Pluteus cervinus (Deer Shield)[12]
Rodwaya infundibuliformis[12]
Russula atrorubens[12]
Russula aurora (Rosy Brittlegill)[12]
Russula badia (Burning Brittlegill)[12]
Russula cyanoxantha (Charcoal Burner)[12]
Russula decolorans (Copper Brittlegill)[12]
Russula paludosa[12]
Russula queletii (Fruity Brittlegill)[12]
Russula sanguinaria (Bloody Brittlegill)[12]
Russula taeniospora[12]
Russula turci[12]
Russula velutina (Fleecy Milkcap)[12]
Russula vesca (The Flirt)[12]
Russula xerampelina (Crab Brittlegill)[12]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[12]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[12]
Tricholoma portentosum[12]
Tricholoma saponaceum (soap-scented toadstool)[12]
Tricholoma sejunctum (Deceiving Knight)[12]
Tricholoma terreum (Grey Knight)[12]
Tricholoma vaccinum (Scaly Knight)[12]
Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete)[12]
Xerocomellus chrysenteron (Red Cracking Bolete)[12]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita gemmata (Jewelled Amanita)[10]
Amanita porphyria (Grey Veiled Amanita)[10]
Boletus pinophilus (Pine Bolete)[10]
Caloboletus frustosus (Bitter Beech Bolete)[12]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[12]
Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike)[10]
Clitopilus prunulus (The Miller)[12]
Cortinarius armillatus (Red Banded Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius caledoniensis[10]
Cortinarius callisteus[10]
Cortinarius camphoratus (Goatcheese Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius caperatus (The Gypsy)[10]
Cortinarius collinitus[10]
Cortinarius corrosus[10]
Cortinarius crassus[10]
Cortinarius cyanites[10]
Cortinarius diosmus[10]
Cortinarius evernius[10]
Cortinarius fervidus (Dyer’s Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius flexipes (Pelargonium Webcap)[12]
Cortinarius fulvescens[10]
Cortinarius gentilis[10]
Cortinarius ionophyllus[10]
Cortinarius limonius (Sunset Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius malachius[10]
Cortinarius malicorius[10]
Cortinarius microspermus[10]
Cortinarius pearsonii[10]
Cortinarius poppyzon[10]
Cortinarius rubellus (Deadly Webcap)[10]
Cortinarius tabacinus[10]
Cortinarius venustus[10]
Cortinarius violilamellatus[10]
Craterellus lutescens[10]
Entoloma rhodopolium (Wood Pinkgill)[12]
Gomphidius glutinosus (Slimy Spike)[10]
Gomphidius roseus (Rosy Spike)[10]
Gymnopus peronatus (Wood Woollyfoot)[12]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[12]
Hydnellum aurantiacum (Orange Tooth)[10]
Hydnellum caeruleum (Blue Tooth)[10]
Hydnellum concrescens (Zoned Tooth)[10]
Hydnellum cumulatum[10]
Hydnellum ferrugineum (Mealy Tooth)[10]
Hydnellum gracilipes[10]
Hydnellum peckii (Devil’s Tooth)[10]
Hydnellum scrobiculatum (Ridged Tooth)[10]
Hydnum repandum (Wood Hedgehog)[12]
Hygrophorus olivaceoalbus[12]
Inocybe cervicolor[12]
Inocybe melanopoda[10]
Inocybe subcarpta[10]
Inocybe xanthomelas[10]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[12]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[10]
Laccaria proxima (Scurfy Deceiver)[10]
Laccaria pumila[10]
Lactarius helvus (Fenugreek Milkcap)[12]
Lactarius musteus (Pine Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius quieticolor[10]
Lactarius repraesentaneus (Yellow Bearded Milkcap)[10]
Lactarius sanguifluus[10]
Lactarius sphagneti[10]
Leccinum vulpinum (Foxy Bolete)[10]
Leucocortinarius bulbiger (White Webcap)[10]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[12]
Macrolepiota procera (parasol mushroom)[12]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[12]
Phellodon atratus[10]
Phellodon confluens (Fused Tooth)[10]
Phellodon melaleucus (Grey Tooth)[10]
Phellodon tomentosus (Woolly Tooth)[10]
Pluteus cervinus (Deer Shield)[12]
Russula caerulea (Humpback Brittlegill)[10]
Russula cessans[10]
Russula decolorans (Copper Brittlegill)[10]
Russula emetica (Sickener)[10]
Russula foetens (Stinking Brittlegill)[10]
Russula integra[10]
Russula nauseosa[10]
Russula postiana[10]
Russula sanguinaria (Bloody Brittlegill)[10]
Russula sardonia (Primrose Brittlegill)[10]
Russula scotica[10]
Russula turci[10]
Russula vinosa (Darkening Brittlegill)[10]
Sarcodon glaucopus (Greenfoot Tooth)[10]
Sarcodon squamosus[10]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[12]
Suillus bovinus (Bovine Bolete)[10]
Suillus collinitus[10]
Suillus flavidus[10]
Suillus granulatus (Weeping Bolete)[10]
Suillus luteus (Slippery Jack)[10]
Suillus variegatus (Velvet Bolete)[10]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[12]
Tricholoma aestuans[10]
Tricholoma apium (Scented Knight)[10]
Tricholoma arvernense[10]
Tricholoma batschii[10]
Tricholoma colossus (Giant Knight)[10]
Tricholoma equestre (Man on horseback)[10]
Tricholoma focale (Booted Knight)[10]
Tricholoma gausapatum[10]
Tricholoma matsutake (Matsutake)[10]
Tricholoma pessundatum[10]
Tricholoma portentosum[10]
Tricholoma robustum[10]
Tricholoma stans (Upright Knight)[10]
Tricholoma terreum (Grey Knight)[12]
Tricholoma vinaceogriseum[10]
Tylopilus felleus (Bitter Bolete)[10]
Parasitized by 
Armillaria ostoyae[12]
Coleosporium tussilaginis[10]
Cronartium flaccidum[10]
Cronartium pini[10]
Fomitopsis pinicola (Red Banded Polypore)[12]
Gremmenia infestans[10]
Heterobasidion annosum (Root Rot)[12]
Melampsora populnea[10]
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Dyer’s Mazegill)[12]
Phellinus igniarius (Willow Bracket)[10]
Porodaedalea pini[10]
Sparassis crispa (Wood Cauliflower)[12]
Viscum album (European mistletoe)[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Svalbard Global Seed Vault


Bassegi Zapovednik; Eurasia, from N. Spain and Scotland in the west to the Russian Far East, from Lapland in the north to Turkey in the south TDWG: 10 FIN GRB NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI BGM-BE BGM-LU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ITA-SM ROM YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-KA BLT-LA BLT-LI KRY RUC RUE RUN RUS RUW UKR-; Eurasia: from N Spain and Scotland in the west to the Russian Far East, from Lapland in the north to Turkey in the south.. TDWG: 10 FIN GRB NOR SWE 11 AUT-AU AUT-LI BGM-BE BGM-LU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER HUN POL SWI 12 FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT ITA-SM ROM YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 BLR BLT-ES BLT-KA BLT-LA BLT-LI KRY RUC RUE RUN RUS RUW UKR-MO UKR-UK 30 ALT BRY CTA IRK KRA TVA WSB YAK 31 AMU KHA 32 KAZ 33 TCS 34 TUR 36 CHI-NM CHM-HJ CHM-JL 37 MON; Western Michigan University’s Asylum Lake;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06.
8Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
11HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
12Ecology of Commanster
13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
14New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
15Black Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Albert E. Mayfield III, Jiri Hulcr, and John L. Foltz, University of Florida
16Influences of the feeding ecology on body mass and possible implications for reproduction in the edible dormouse (Glis glis), Joanna Fietz, M. Pflug, W. Schlund, F. Tataruch, J Comp Physiol B (2005) 175: 45–55
17Trophic utilization of a montane/subalpine forest by chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in the Central Pyrenees, R. Garcia-Gonzalez, P. Cuartas, Forest Ecology and Management 88 (1996) 15-23
18Geographic variation in walnut seed size correlates with hoarding behaviour of two rodent species, N. Tamura and F. Hayashi, Ecol Res (2008) 23: 607–614
19del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access