Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus thunbergii

Pinus thunbergii (Japanese black pine; Thunberg pine)

Synonyms: Pinus massoniana; Pinus thunbergiana
Language: Chi; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Japanese; Jpn (Kanji); Jpn (Katakana); Kor (Hangul); Korean; Rus

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus thunbergii (Syn: Pinus thunbergiana; English: Japanese Black Pine, Japanese Pine, Black Pine; Korean: 곰솔 ; Chinese: 黑松 ; Japanese: Kuromatsu; Kanji: 黒松) is a pine native to coastal areas of Japan: Kyūshū, Shikoku and Honshū, but not Hokkaidō ( Hokkaidō has a particular type of pine called Aikuromatsu) and South Korea.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus thunbergii


Height [2]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [2]  23 feet (7 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 9 Low Temperature: 20 F° (-6.7 C°) → 30 F° (-1.1 C°)
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [3]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [4]  0.45
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  Tolerant of salt spray, this species makes a good shelterbelt for exposed maritime positions; Trees were 9 metres tall after 30 years in a very exposed position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall; Planted to stabilize sand dunes by the coast; A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc.
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus thunbergii

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Fire Island National Seashore V 9433 New York, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States


Aonidiella aurantii (California red scale)[5]
Aspidiotus cryptomeriae (Cryptomeria Scale)[5]
Callosciurus erythraeus (Pallas's squirrel)[6]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[5]
Cinara pinea[7]
Coloradia velda[8]
Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana pine mealybug)[5]
Dendroctonus terebrans (black turpentine beetle)[9]
Drosicha pinicola[5]
Fiorinia fioriniae (European fiorinia scale)[5]
Fiorinia japonica (Japanese scale)[5]
Lepidosaphes pini (Oriental pine scale)[5]
Lepidosaphes piniphila[5]
Matsucoccus massonianae[5]
Matsucoccus matsumurae[5]
Matsucoccus pini[7]
Petaurista leucogenys (Japanese giant flying squirrel)[10]
Pseudococcus comstocki (Comstock mealybug)[5]
Retinia cristata[8]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[8]
Rhyacionia dativa[8]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[8]
Rhyacionia rigidana[8]
Rhyacionia simulata (Summer shoot moth)[8]


Japan: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku; South Korea (near the coast) TDWG: 38 JAP-HN JAP-KY JAP-SH KOR-SK; Japan: Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku; South Korea (near the coast). TDWG: 38 JAP-HN JAP-KY JAP-SH KOR-SK;



Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 3USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 4Chave J, Coomes D, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Swenson NG, Zanne AE (2009) Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Ecology Letters 12: 351-366. Zanne AE, Lopez-Gonzalez G, Coomes DA, Ilic J, Jansen S, Lewis SL, Miller RB, Swenson NG, Wiemann MC, Chave J (2009) Data from: Towards a worldwide wood economics spectrum. Dryad Digital Repository. 5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 6Callosciurus erythraeus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), PETER W. W. LURZ, VIRGINIA HAYSSEN, KIMBERLY GEISSLER, AND SANDRO BERTOLINO, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 45(902):60–74 (2013) 7Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 9Black Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Albert E. Mayfield III, Jiri Hulcr, and John L. Foltz, University of Florida 10SEASONAL CHANGES IN THE DIET OF JAPANESE GIANT FLYING SQUIRRELS IN RELATION TO REPRODUCTION, Takeo Kawamichi, Journal of Mammalogy, 78(1):204-212, 1997
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access