Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus virginiana
 

Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine; Poverty pine; Scrub pine)

Synonyms: Pinus inops; Pinus turbinata
Language: Chi; Fre; Ger; Hun; Ita; Rus

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine, scrub pine, Jersey pine) is a medium-sized tree, often found on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to western Tennessee and Alabama. The usual size range for this pine is 9–18 m, but can grow taller under optimum conditions. The trunk can be as large as 0.5 m diameter. This tree prefers well-drained loam or clay, but will also grow on very poor, sandy soil, where it remains small and stunted.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus virginiana

Attributes

Height [3]  49 feet (15 m)
Width [3]  20 feet (6 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 5 Low Temperature: -20 F° (-28.9 C°) → -10 F° (-23.3 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 8 Low Temperature: 10 F° (-12.2 C°) → 20 F° (-6.7 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Acidity [2]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  Moderate to Low
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Medium
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  5 months 15 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Rapid
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [4]  740 lbf (336 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  20 inches (51 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Rapid
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  52160 / lb (114993 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Irregular
Specific Gravity [5]  0.48
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - coarse-grained, light, soft, weak and brittle, durable in contact with the soil; It weighs 33lb per cubic foot; It is used mainly for pulp and occasionally as lumber in rough construction or as a fuel;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus virginiana

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Allegheny Portage Railroad Nat'l Hist. Site National Historic Site III 1152 Pennsylvania, United States
Appomattox Court House National Historical Park V 1687 Virginia, United States
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area National Recreation Area V 120283 Kentucky, Tennessee, United States
Bluestone National Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 3517 West Virginia, United States
Booker T. Washington National Monument V 237 Virginia, United States
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 19586 Maryland, District of Columbia, United States
Chickamauga & Chattanooga Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 8248 Georgia, Tennessee, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Gap National Hist. Park National Historical Park V 24282 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, United States
Fort Donelson National Battlefield III 560 Tennessee, United States
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania Nat'l Military Park National Military Park V 10384 Virginia, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gauley River National Recreation Area V 10157 West Virginia, United States
George Washington Birthplace National Monument V 435 Virginia, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Mitchell State Park   North Carolina, United States
National Capital Parks - Central National Park   District of Columbia, United States
National Capital Region - East National Park   District of Columbia, United States
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Obed Wild and Scenic River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 5268 Tennessee, United States
Petersburg National Battlefield III 3338 Virginia, United States
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Richmond National Battlefield Park III 1517 Virginia, United States
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Shiloh National Military Park III 4061 Tennessee, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Tennessee River Gorge   Tennessee, United States

Ecosystems

Predators

Castor canadensis (american beaver)[6]
Chionaspis heterophyllae (pine scale)[7]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[7]
Cydia toreuta (Eastern Pine Seedworm Moth)[8]
Dasychira manto[8]
Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle)[9]
Diaspidiotus mccombi (McComb pine scale)[7]
Dynastes tityus (Eastern hercules beetle)[6]
Dysmicoccus obesus (pine mealybug)[7]
Eucosma monitorana[8]
Eucosma tocullionana[8]
Exoteleia pinifoliella (Pine needle miner)[8]
Hypagyrtis esther (Esther Moth)[8]
Hypagyrtis unipunctata (One-spotted Variant Moth)[8]
Incisalia niphon (Eastern Pine Elfin)[8]
Lapara coniferarum (southern pine sphinx)[8]
Matsucoccus gallicolus[7]
Microtus pennsylvanicus[6]
Oracella acuta (acute mealybug)[7]
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse)[6]
Poecile carolinensis (Carolina Chickadee)[6]
Reticulitermes flavipes (eastern subterranean termite)[6]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[8]
Rhyacionia rigidana[8]
Sciurus carolinensis (eastern gray squirrel)[6]
Semiothisa bicolorata[8]
Semiothisa distribuaria[8]
Semiothisa granitata[8]
Tamias striatus (eastern chipmunk)[6]
Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)[7]
Toumeyella pini (striped pine scale)[7]
Toumeyella virginiana (Virginia pine scale)[7]
Zale bethunei[8]
Zale metatoides (Washed-out Zale)[8]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[6]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[6]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[6]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[6]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[6]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[6]
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)[6]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[6]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amauroderma fuscatum (Turkeytail)[6]
Buprestis lineata[11]
Lonicera japonica (Chinese honeysuckle)[6]
Microtus pennsylvanicus (meadow vole)[6]
Monotropa uniflora (one-flower Indian-pipe)[6]
Shelter for 
Apis mellifera (honey bee)[6]
Archilochus colubris (Ruby-throated Hummingbird)[6]
Buteo jamaicensis (Red-tailed Hawk)[6]
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (black carpenter ant)[6]
Cyanocitta cristata (Blue Jay)[6]
Dryocopus pileatus (Pileated Woodpecker)[6]
Micrathena gracilis (Spined micrathena)[6]
Myiarchus crinitus (Great Crested Flycatcher)[6]
Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer)[6]
Procyon lotor (Raccoon)[6]
Quiscalus quiscula (Common Grackle)[6]
Sialia sialis (Eastern Bluebird)[6]
Strix varia (Barred Owl)[6]
Thryothorus ludovicianus (Carolina Wren)[6]
Triatoma sanguisuga (Eastern blood-sucking cone)[6]
Turdus migratorius (American Robin)[6]
Acrosternum hilare (Green stinkbug)[6]
Antheraea polyphemus (polyphemus moth)[6]
Baeolophus bicolor (Tufted Titmouse)[6]
Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite)[6]
Meleagris gallopavo (Wild Turkey)[6]
Sitta carolinensis (White-breasted Nuthatch)[6]
Spinus tristis (American Goldfinch)[6]
Sylvilagus floridanus (Eastern Cottontail)[6]
Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove)[6]

Range Map

E U.S.A., from New York State in the north to N Alabama and Mississippi in the south-west and South Carolina in the south of its range. TDWG: 75 INI NWJ NWY OHI PEN WVA 78 ALA DEL GEO KTY MRY MSI NCA SCA TEN VRG; E USA: from New York State in the north to N Alabama and Mississippi in the south-west and South Carolina in the south of its range.. TDWG: 75 INI NWJ NWY OHI PEN WVA 78 ALA DEL GEO KTY MRY MSI NCA SCA TEN VRG;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture 3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 5Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 6Study of Northern Virginia Ecology 7Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009 8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 9Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), James R. Meeker, Wayne N. Dixon, John L. Foltz, and Thomas R. Fasulo, University of Florida 10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 11Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access