Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pinus > Pinus mugo

Pinus mugo (Mountain pine; dwarf mountain pine; mugo pine)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Pol; Rus; Slo; Swe

Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus mugo, known as creeping pine, dwarf mountainpine, mugo pine, mountain pine, scrub mountain pine or Swiss mountain pine, is a species of conifer, native to high elevation habitats from southwestern to Central Europe.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus mugo



Height [3]  14.8 feet (4.5 m)
Width [3]  26 feet (8 m)
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Hardiness Zone Minimum [2]  USDA Zone: 3 Low Temperature: -40 F° (-40 C°) → -30 F° (-34.4 C°)
Light Preference [4]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [2]  Neutral
Soil Fertility [4]  Mostly Infertile
Water Use [2]  Low
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Dark Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  None
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  90 days
Growth Form [2]  Multiple Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Slow
Hazards [3]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting
Root Depth [2]  16 inches (41 cm)
Seed Spread Rate [2]  None
Seeds Per [2]  72240 / lb (159262 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Decumbent
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; Trees are sometimes planted as a shelterbelt at high altitudes; There are a number of dwarf forms that are very useful for covering dry slopes and mounds; An essential oil obtained from the young twigs is used medicinally and also in woody perfumeries; Trees are planted for sand binding and shelter in N. Europe; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - used to make shoes etc;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus mugo

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Babia Góra National Park II 4492 Poland
Beskid Niski 375518 Poland  
Beskid Zywiecki 87169 Poland  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve 144772 Ukraine  
Disgrazia - Sissone 7438 Italy  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Góry Stolowe 48968 Poland  
Horná Orava 145144 Slovakia  
Karkonosze National Park II 45907 Poland
Monte di Scerscen - Ghiacciai di Scerscen - Monte Motta 23885 Italy  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Tatry 51937 Poland  
Torfowiska Gór Izerskich 12318 Poland  
Torfowiska Orawsko-Nowotarskie 20400 Poland  
Val di Togno - Pizzo Scalino 7784 Italy  
Ve¾ká Fatra 149348 Slovakia  
Vitosha 67608 Bulgaria  


Acantholyda erythrocephala (pine false webworm)[5]
Assara terebrella[6]
Cedestis subfasciella[7]
Cinara pinea[6]
Cinara pineti[6]
Cinara pini[6]
Cinara pinihabitans[6]
Cinara schimitscheki[6]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[7]
Diaspidiotus mccombi (McComb pine scale)[8]
Dioryctria abietivorella[7]
Dioryctria disclusa[7]
Diprion similis (introduced pine sawfly)[6]
Dynaspidiotus abietis (hemlock scale)[6]
Eucosma gloriola[7]
Eulachnus agilis[6]
Eulachnus brevipilosus[6]
Exoteleia dodecella[7]
Exoteleia nepheos[7]
Ips acuminatus[6]
Ips sexdentatus[6]
Lepidosaphes newsteadi (pine oysterhell scale)[8]
Leucaspis lowi (Hartig's pine scale)[8]
Leucaspis pini (Austrian pine scale)[8]
Leucaspis pusilla (pine scale)[8]
Lindingaspis rossi (araucaria black scale)[9]
Lophodermium conigenum[5]
Matsucoccus mugo[8]
Monochamus sartor[5]
Pineus orientalis[6]
Pineus pini (Eurasian pine adelgid)[6]
Pissodes pini[6]
Pityogenes bidentatus[6]
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii[5]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[6]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[7]
Thecodiplosis brachyntera[6]
Therrya pini[5]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[6]
Toumeyella parvicornis (pine tortoise scale)[8]
Toumeyella pini (striped pine scale)[8]
Trisetacus pini <Unverified Name>[6]
Zeiraphera diniana[6]


Europe, in mountains from W Spain to Bulgaria and Romania TDWG: 11 AUT-AU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER POL SWI 12 FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL ITA-IT ROM YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-SE 14 UKR-UK; Europe, in mountains from W Spain to Bulgaria and Romania. TDWG: 11 AUT-AU CZE-CZ CZE-SK GER POL SWI 12 FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL ITA-IT ROM YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-SE 14 UKR-UK;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Derived from Allergy-Free Gardening OPALS™, Thomas Leo Ogren (2000)
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Ellenberg, H., Weber, H.E., Dull, R., Wirth, V., Werner, W., Paulissen, D. (1991) Zeigerwerte von Pflanzen in Mitteleuropa. Scripta Geobotanica 18, 1–248
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
7HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
8Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
9New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access