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Pinus nigra (Black pine; Austrian pine; Corsican pine; Crimean pine)

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Wikipedia Abstract

Pinus nigra (black pine) is a moderately variable species of pine, occurring across southern Mediterranean Europe from Spain to the eastern Mediterranean on Anatolian peninsula of Turkey and on Corsica/Cyprus, including Crimea, and in the high mountains of the Maghreb in North Africa.
View Wikipedia Record: Pinus nigra

Infraspecies

Attributes

Height [2]  98 feet (30 m)
Width [2]  26 feet (8 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Shade Percentage [1]  83 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 7 Low Temperature: 0 F° (-17.8 C°) → 10 F° (-12.2 C°)
Light Preference [5]  Mostly Sunny
Soil Acidity [5]  Moderate Acid
Soil Fertility [5]  Infertile
Soil Moisture [5]  Mostly Dry
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Dispersal Mode [6]  Anemochory
Edible [2]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Flower Type [2]  Monoecious
Hazards [2]  The wood, sawdust and resins from various species of pine can cause dermatitis in sensitive people;
Janka Hardness [3]  660 lbf (299 kgf) Soft
Leaf Type [2]  Evergreen
Lifespan [4]  Perennial
Pollinators [2]  Wind
Specific Gravity [7]  0.47
Structure [2]  Tree
Usage [2]  A tan or green dye is obtained from the needles; The needles contain a substance called terpene, this is released when rain washes over the needles and it has a negative effect on the germination of some plants, including wheat; A very wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting; Trees have proved to be very resistant to maritime exposure on our Cornwall trial grounds; Resin and turpentine are obtained from the wood, they are used in ointments and plasters; Oleo-resins are present in the tissues of all species of pines, but these are often not present in sufficient quantity to make their extraction economically worthwhile; The resins are obtained by tapping the trunk, or by destructive distillation of the wood; In general, trees from warmer areas of distribution give the higher yields; Turpentine consists of an average of 20% of the oleo-resin; Turpentine has a wide range of uses including as a solvent for waxes etc, for making varnish, medicinal etc; Rosin is the substance left after turpentine is removed. This is used by violinists on their bows and also in making sealing wax, varnish etc; Pitch can also be obtained from the resin and is used for waterproofing, as a wood preservative etc. Wood - non durable. Used for rough carpentry and furniture;
View Plants For A Future Record : Pinus nigra

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Assateague Island National Seashore II 8621 Maryland, United States
Chippewa Nature Center   Michigan, United States    
Fort Larned National Historic Site III 706 Kansas, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Herbert Hoover National Historic Site   Iowa, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Khopersky Zapovednik Ia 47103 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Monti Simbruini 49139 Italy  
Nez Perce National Historical Park V 2076 Idaho, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Parco Del Somma-Vesuvio e Miglio D'Oro National Park II 33648 Italy

Predators

Acantholyda erythrocephala (pine false webworm)[8]
Androporus discedens <Unverified Name>[9]
Anthostomella conorum[8]
Anthostomella formosa[8]
Anthostomella sabinianae[8]
Anungitea continua[8]
Assara terebrella[10]
Blastesthia turionella (Pine Bud Moth)[11]
Bupalus piniaria[11]
Capra pyrenaica (Spanish ibex)[12]
Chalara fusidioides[8]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[13]
Cinara acutirostris[10]
Cinara brauni[10]
Cinara cedri[10]
Cinara pinea[10]
Cinara pini[10]
Cinara schimitscheki[10]
Cistella acuum[8]
Citheronia sepulcralis (Pine-devil Moth)[11]
Clavigesta purdeyi (Pine leaf-mining Moth)[11]
Coniochaeta malacotricha[8]
Contarinia baeri[10]
Copaxa cydippe[11]
Crisicoccus pini (Kuwana pine mealybug)[13]
Crumenulopsis sororia[8]
Cydia conicolana[11]
Cydia coniferana[11]
Cydia cosmophorana[11]
Dacrymyces variisporus[8]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[9]
Dendrodochium citrinum[8]
Dendrodochium pinastri[8]
Diaspidiotus mccombi (McComb pine scale)[13]
Dioryctria mutatella[10]
Dioryctria ponderosae[11]
Dioryctria zimmermani[11]
Endophragmiella pinicola[8]
Eucosma gloriola[11]
Eulachnus brevipilosus[10]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[10]
Exoteleia dodecella[11]
Fusidium griseum[8]
Goidanichiana jourdheuillella[11]
Gorgoniceps aridula[8]
Graellsia isabellae (Spanish Moon Moth)[11]
Hamatocanthoscypha laricionis[8]
Hapleginella laevifrons[10]
Hendersonia acicola[8]
Hexatricha pulverulenta[9]
Hyaloscypha aureliella[8]
Hyaloscypha leuconica[8]
Ips acuminatus[10]
Kriegeriella mirabilis[8]
Lachnellula pulverulenta[8]
Lachnellula subtilissima (Conifer Disco)[8]
Lepidosaphes juniperi (juniper oystershell scale)[13]
Lepidosaphes newsteadi (pine oysterhell scale)[13]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[8]
Leucaspis lowi (Hartig's pine scale)[13]
Leucaspis pini (Austrian pine scale)[13]
Leucaspis pusilla (pine scale)[13]
Leucaspis signoreti (Signoret's pine scale)[13]
Lichenopeltella pinophylla[8]
Lophium mytilinum[8]
Lophodermium conigenum[8]
Lophodermium seditiosum[8]
Matsucoccus pini[13]
Melanophila acuminata[10]
Microthyrium pinophyllum[8]
Orbilia leucostigma[8]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[10]
Pezicula livida[8]
Phlebiopsis gigantea[8]
Phrynixus terreus[9]
Pineus pini (Eurasian pine adelgid)[10]
Pissodes validirostris[10]
Platypus apicalis[9]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[9]
Psepholax macleayi[9]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[9]
Rhyaciona buoliana <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhyacionia buoliana (European pine-shoot moth)[11]
Rhyacionia frustrana (Nantucket pine tip moth)[11]
Rhyacionia pinicolana[11]
Rhyacionia rigidana[11]
Rhyacionia washiyai[11]
Schizolachnus pineti[10]
Sirex cyaneus (blue horntail)[10]
Sirex juvencus <Unverified Name>[10]
Sirex noctilio[10]
Stomiopeltis pinastri[8]
Strasseria geniculata[8]
Strophosomus capitatus[10]
Stypella dubia[8]
Thecodiplosis brachyntera[10]
Thelonectria pinea[8]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[10]
Trimmatostroma scutellare[8]
Tryblidiopsis pinastri[8]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[10]
Xyleborinus saxeseni[9]

Consumers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Aspidella singeri[8]
Chroogomphus rutilus (Copper Spike)[8]
Russula torulosa[8]
Tricholoma batschii[8]
Parasitized by 
Coleosporium tussilaginis[8]
Cronartium flaccidum[8]
Melampsora populnea[8]

Distribution

SW, S & SE Europe; N Algeria; N Morocco; Cyprus; Turkey; from the Krym (Crimea) in Ukraine along the Black Sea coast east to Krasnodar in the Caucasus. TDWG: 11 AUT-AU 12 COR FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT KRI ROM SIC-SI TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 KRY 20 ALG MOR-MO 33 NCS-KR 34 CYP EAI TUR; SW, S and SE Europe; N Algeria; N Morocco; Cyprus; Turkey; from the Krym [Crimea] in Ukraine along the Black Sea coast eastwards to Krasnodar in the Caucasus.. TDWG: 11 AUT-AU 12 COR FRA-FR SPA-AN SPA-SP 13 ALB BUL GRC ITA-IT KRI ROM SIC-SI TUE YUG-BH YUG-CR YUG-KO YUG-MA YUG-MN YUG-SE YUG-SL 14 KRY 20 ALG MOR-MO 33 NCS-KR 34 CYP EAI TUR;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database. 2Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License 3Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts 4PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004) 5ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999) 6Paula S, Arianoutsou M, Kazanis D, Tavsanoglu Ç, Lloret F, Buhk C, Ojeda F, Luna B, Moreno JM, Rodrigo A, Espelta JM, Palacio S, Fernández-Santos B, Fernandes PM, and Pausas JG. 2009. Fire-related traits for plant species of the Mediterranean Basin. Ecology 90: 1420.
Paula S. & Pausas J.G. 2013. BROT: a plant trait database for Mediterranean Basin species. Version 2013.06. 7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service 8Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 9New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database 10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants 11HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández 12Role of Various Woody Species in Spanish Mediterranean Forest and Scrubland as Food Resources for Spanish Ibex (Capra pyrenaica Schinz) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus L.), T. Martínez, Agroforestry in Europe: Current Status and Future Prospects, pp. 233-253 (2009) 13Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. Chippewa Nature Center Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access