Plantae > Tracheophyta > Pinopsida > Pinales > Pinaceae > Pseudotsuga > Pseudotsuga menziesii

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir; Oregon pine; British Columbia fir; Douglas spruce; Douglas-fir)

Language: Chi; Cze; Dut; Fre; Ger; Hrv, Srp; Hun; Ita; Nor; Rus; Slo; Spa


Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir) (Attributes)
Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Attributes)


Height [3]  246 feet (75 m)
Width [3]  66 feet (20 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Medium-Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Dense
Screening - Winter [2]  Dense
Shade Percentage [1]  91 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-High
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 4 Low Temperature: -30 F° (-34.4 C°) → -20 F° (-28.9 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 6 Low Temperature: -10 F° (-23.3 C°) → 0 F° (-17.8 C°)
Light Preference [6]  Mixed Sun/Shade
Soil Acidity [6]  Mostly Acid
Soil Fertility [6]  Mostly Infertile
Soil Moisture [6]  Moist
Water Use [1]  Moderate
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Brown
Bloom Period [2]  Mid Spring
Drought Tolerance [2]  Low
Edible [3]  May be edible. See the Plants For A Future link below for details.
Fire Tolerance [2]  Low
Flower Type [3]  Monoecious
Frost Free Days [2]  4 months 10 days
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  High
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Summer
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Stem
Growth Period [2]  Spring, Summer
Growth Rate [2]  Moderate
Janka Hardness [4]  600 lbf (272 kgf) Very Soft
Leaf Type [3]  Evergreen
Lifespan [5]  Perennial
Pollinators [3]  Wind
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Seed
Root Depth [2]  26 inches (66 cm)
Scent [3]  The leaves have a strong sweet fruity aroma.
Seed Spread Rate [2]  Moderate
Seed Vigor [2]  High
Seeds Per [2]  42080 / lb (92770 / kg)
Shape/Orientation [2]  Conical
Specific Gravity [7]  0.48
Structure [3]  Tree
Usage [3]  A light brown dye is obtained from the bark; The bark is a source of tannins; The bark can be used as a cork substitute; The bark contains pitch, it burns with a lot of heat and almost no smoke, so it is prized as a fuel; The small roots have been used to make baskets; The plant has insecticidal properties; A resin is obtained from the trunk, similar to Abies balsamea; The resin can also be used as a caulking material on boats; A fast growing and fairly wind-resistant tree, it is often used in shelterbelt plantings; Wood - heavy, strong, fine grained, durable, though it can be of variable quality. It dries quickly, does not warp and is easily worked, it is used for heavy construction, telegraph poles, furniture etc; It is also used as a good quality fuel;
Vegetative Spread Rate [2]  None
View Plants For A Future Record : Pseudotsuga menziesii

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Ben Wyvis 13313 Scotland, United Kingdom
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Burnham Beeches 946 England, United Kingdom  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carlsbad Caverns National Park II 15448 New Mexico, United States
Carlton Ridge Research Natural Area Ia 949 Montana, United States  
Cedar Breaks National Monument III 6111 Utah, United States
Coram Biosphere Reserve 7460 Montana, United States
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
Dornoch Firth and Morrich More 21499 Scotland, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths 14161 England, United Kingdom
Dorset Heaths (Purbeck and Wareham) and Studland Dunes 5491 England, United Kingdom
Ebey's Landing National Historical Reserve V   Washington, United States
Elenydd 21274 Wales, United Kingdom
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument III 5997 Colorado, United States
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Friendship Hill National Historic Site III 697 Pennsylvania, United States
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Grand Canyon National Park II 1210128 Arizona, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle of Rum National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Merrick Kells 21494 Scotland, United Kingdom
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Natural Bridges National Monument III 7412 Utah, United States
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
Oregon Caves National Monument V 456 Oregon, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
River Moriston 481 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Tweed 9380 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Rocky Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 239938 Colorado, United States
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Salisbury Plain 52975 England, United Kingdom
San Juan Island National Historical Park III 1674 Washington, United States
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solent Maritime 27985 England, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Spivey Pond Management Area 54 California, United States      
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tulach Hill and Glen Fender Meadows 3912 Scotland, United Kingdom
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States


Emblem of



Achytonix epipaschia[8]
Acleris gloveranus (Western Blackheaded Budworm)[8]
Acleris variana (Black-headed budworm)[8]
Adelges cooleyi (Cooley spruce gall adelgid)[9]
Agrotis radians (Brown Cutworm)[8]
Allantophomopsiella pseudotsugae[10]
Amasa truncata <Unverified Name>[11]
Ambrosiodmus compressus[11]
Amphipyra glabella (Grey Amphipyra)[8]
Anagotus helmsi[11]
Anobium punctatum (furniture beetle)[11]
Aphelia viburniana[8]
Aplodontia rufa (mountain beaver)[12]
Argyresthia pseudotsuga[8]
Argyrotaenia dorsalana[8]
Argyrotaenia occultana[8]
Argyrotaenia pinatubana[8]
Argyrotaenia provana[8]
Argyrotaenia tabulana[8]
Ariathisa abyssinia[8]
Armillaria gallica[10]
Aseptis binotata (Rusty Shoulder Knot Moth)[8]
Assara terebrella[9]
Baeospora myosura (Conifercone Cap)[10]
Barbara colfaxiana[8]
Barbara ulteriorana[8]
Bjerkandera fumosa (Big Smoky Bracket)[10]
Bupalus piniaria[8]
Calliprason pallidus[11]
Callistosporium pinicola[10]
Callospermophilus lateralis (golden-mantled ground squirrel)[13]
Caripeta aequaliaria[8]
Caripeta angustiorata (brown pine looper)[8]
Chionaspis pinifoliae (pine leaf scale)[9]
Chionodes abella[8]
Chionodes periculella[8]
Choristoneura murinana[8]
Choristoneura occidentalis[8]
Ciboria rufofusca[10]
Coleotechnites atrupictella[8]
Coptomma lineatum[11]
Coptomma sulcatum[11]
Costelytra zealandica[11]
Cryphalus abietis[9]
Ctenopseustis obliquana[8]
Cydia fletcherana[8]
Cydia illutana[9]
Cydia laricana[8]
Cydia pseudotsugae[8]
Dasychira grisefacta (Grizzled Tussock)[8]
Dasychira vagans[8]
Dasypyga alternosquamella[8]
Declana floccosa (Forest Semilooper)[8]
Declana hermione[8]
Declana junctilinea[8]
Declana leptomera[8]
Deileptenia ribeata (Satin Beauty Moth)[9]
Dendragapus obscurus fuliginosus (Sooty Grouse)[14]
Dendroctonus pseudotsugae (douglas-fir beetle)[10]
Dendrolimus pini (Pine-tree Lappet)[8]
Dermea balsamea[10]
Dioryctria abietella[8]
Dioryctria abietivorella[8]
Dioryctria pseudotsugella[8]
Dioryctria reniculelloides[8]
Dioryctria zimmermani[8]
Dryocoetes autographus[9]
Dynaspidiotus abietis (hemlock scale)[9]
Echinoderma perplexum[10]
Ectropis crepuscularia (small engrailed)[10]
Egira candida[8]
Egira hiemalis[8]
Egira rubrica[8]
Egira simplex[8]
Enypia griseata[8]
Enypia packardata[8]
Enypia venata[8]
Epinotia radicana[10]
Epiphyas postvittana (Light brown apple moth)[11]
Ernobius mollis (Pine bark anobiid)[9]
Ernobius punctulatus[15]
Euchlaena madusaria[8]
Eucosma gloriola[8]
Euophryum rufum <Unverified Name>[11]
Eupithecia abietaria (Cloaked Pug Moth)[8]
Eupithecia albicapitata[8]
Eupithecia annulata[8]
Eupithecia catalinata[8]
Eupithecia filmata[8]
Eupithecia graefii[8]
Eupithecia harrisonata[8]
Eupithecia intricata (Freyer’s Pug)[9]
Eupithecia lariciata (Larch Pug)[8]
Eupithecia longipalpata[8]
Eupithecia luteata[8]
Eupithecia nanata (Narrow-winged Pug)[8]
Eupithecia olivacea[8]
Eupithecia ornata[8]
Eupithecia palpata (Small Pine Looper)[8]
Eupithecia pseudotsugata[8]
Eupithecia tantillaria (Dwarf Pug)[8]
Eupithecia transcanadata[8]
Eupithecia unicolor[8]
Eupithecia usurpata[8]
Eupithecia vinsullata[8]
Euplexia benesimilis[8]
Falcipennis canadensis (Spruce Grouse)[10]
Filatima natalis[8]
Fiorinia externa (elongate hemlock scale)[16]
Fishia yosemitae[8]
Fuscoporia ferrea (Cinnamon Porecrust)[10]
Gabriola dyari[8]
Galenara consimilis[8]
Ganoderma lucidum[10]
Gastrodes abietum (Spruce Cone Bug)[9]
Glena cognataria[8]
Glena nigricaria[8]
Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Conifer Mazegill)[10]
Graphania insignis[8]
Hadrobregmus magnus <Unverified Name>[11]
Hapleginella laevifrons[9]
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Greenhouse thrip)[11]
Helvella calycina[10]
Hemimycena lactea (Milky Bonnet)[10]
Hesperumia sulphuraria[8]
Hexatricha pulverulenta[11]
Hierodoris atychioides <Unverified Name>[11]
Holcocera augusti[8]
Hydriomena divisaria[8]
Hydriomena irata[8]
Hydriomena marinata[8]
Hydriomena renunciata[8]
Hydriomena speciosata[8]
Hylaea fasciaria (Barred Red Moth)[8]
Hylastes ater (Black pine bark beetle)[9]
Hypagyrtis piniata (pine measuringworm)[8]
Hypholoma lateritium (Brick Tuft)[10]
Hypochnicium eichleri[10]
Hypoprepia miniata[8]
Incisalia eryphon[8]
Iridopsis larvaria[8]
Ischnoderma benzoinum (Benzoin Bracket)[10]
Kalotermes brouni[11]
Lacinipolia patalis[8]
Laetiporus sulphureus (Chicken of the Woods)[10]
Lambdina fervidaria (Curve-lined Looper)[8]
Lambdina fiscellaria (hemlock looper)[8]
Leanobium flavomaculatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Leptoglossus occidentalis (western conifer-seed bug)[10]
Leucogyrophana sororia[10]
Liothula omnivora[11]
Lophocampa argentata (silverspotted tiger moth)[8]
Lophocampa roseata[8]
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth)[10]
Lymantria monacha (Black Arches, Nun Moth)[17]
Marasmiellus ramealis (Twig Parachute)[10]
Marmara oregonensis[8]
Megastigmus spermotrophus[9]
Melanchra pulverulenta[8]
Melanolophia imitata (Western Carpet)[10]
Metanema inatomaria (Pale Metanema)[8]
Mitrastethus baridioides[11]
Nematocampa limbata (filiment bearer)[8]
Nemoria viridicaria[8]
Neoalcis californiaria (Brown-lined Looper)[8]
Neonectria fuckeliana[10]
Neophasia menapia (Pine butterfly)[8]
Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed woodrat)[18]
Nepytia canosaria (false hemlock looper)[8]
Nepytia freemani (Western False Hemlock Looper)[8]
Nepytia phantasmaria (phantom hemlock looper)[8]
Nepytia umbrosaria[8]
Nucifraga columbiana (Clark's Nutcracker)[10]
Operophtera bruceata (bruce spanworm)[8]
Operophtera occidentalis[8]
Orthops atomarius <Unverified Name>[9]
Ovis canadensis (bighorn sheep)[19]
Panolis flammea (Pine Beauty)[8]
Panthea acronyctoides (Black Zigzag)[8]
Panthea portlandia[8]
Papestra cristifera[8]
Papestra quadrata[8]
Paralobesia piceana[8]
Penicillium glaucoalbidum[10]
Pero behrensaria[8]
Pero mizon[8]
Pero morrisonaria (Morrison's Pero)[8]
Peromyscus boylii (brush mouse)[20]
Pezicula livida[10]
Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii[10]
Phomopsis velata[10]
Phymatus cucullatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Physokermes piceae[9]
Physokermes taxifoliae (Douglas fir scale)[16]
Pissodes validirostris[9]
Pityogenes bidentatus[9]
Pityogenes chalcographus[17]
Pityogenes quadridens[9]
Planotortrix notophaea[11]
Platypus apicalis[11]
Platypus gracilis[11]
Pleurocybella porrigens[10]
Polydrusus impar[17]
Postia sericeomollis[10]
Postia stiptica (Bitter Bracket)[10]
Prionophus reticularis <Unverified Name>[11]
Promylea lunigerella[8]
Pseudocoremia fenerata[8]
Pseudocoremia leucelaea[8]
Pseudocoremia productata[8]
Pseudocoremia suavis (Common Forest Looper)[11]
Pyrgotis plagiatana[8]
Pyronota festiva[11]
Resinicium bicolor[10]
Rhizochaete radicata[10]
Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii[10]
Rhodonia placenta[10]
Rodwayella sessilis[10]
Sabulodes edwardsata[8]
Sarea resinae[10]
Sciurus aberti (Abert's squirrel)[21]
Sciurus arizonensis (Arizona gray squirrel)[22]
Sciurus griseus (western gray squirrel)[23]
Semiothisa adonis[8]
Semiothisa granitata[8]
Semiothisa signaria[8]
Semiothisa unipunctaria[8]
Serpula himantioides[10]
Sirococcus conigenus[10]
Spadicoides atra[10]
Sparassis crispa (Wood Cauliflower)[10]
Stenoporpia pulmonaria[8]
Stenoporpia separataria[8]
Stolotermes ruficeps[11]
Strasseria geniculata[10]
Strobilurus esculentus (Sprucecone Cap)[10]
Strophosomus capitatus[9]
Synaxis pallulata[8]
Syndemis afflictana[8]
Syngrapha alias (Hooked Silver Y)[8]
Syngrapha rectangula (Salt and Pepper Looper)[8]
Syngrapha selecta (Chosen Looper Moth)[8]
Syngrapha viridisigma[8]
Tamias cinereicollis (gray-collared chipmunk)[24]
Tamias quadrimaculatus (long-eared chipmunk)[25]
Tamias ruficaudus (red-tailed chipmunk)[26]
Tamias umbrinus (Uinta chipmunk)[27]
Tamiasciurus douglasii (Douglas's squirrel)[28]
Thallophaga hyperborea (Northern Thallophaga)[8]
Thelonectria pinea[10]
Thera britannica (Spruce Carpet Moth)[8]
Thera obeliscata (Grey Pine Carpet Moth)[8]
Tolype dayi[8]
Tomicus piniperda (common pine shoot beetle)[9]
Torostoma apicale[11]
Tortrix flavescens[8]
Tryblidiopsis pinastri[10]
Urocerus gigas <Unverified Name>[9]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[10]
Xestia mustelina[8]
Xylobolus frustulatus[10]
Xylococculus macrocarpae[16]
Zale minerea[8]
Zeiraphera diniana[8]
Zeiraphera hesperiana[8]
Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Spruce bud moth)[8]
Arborimus pomo (Sonoma tree vole)[29]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita gemmata (Jewelled Amanita)[17]
Amanita pantherina (Panther Amanita)[17]
Amanita rubescens[17]
Amanita vaginata (Grisette)[17]
Boletus subtomentosus (Suede Bolete)[17]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[17]
Chalciporus piperatus (Peppery Bolete)[17]
Cyanoboletus pulverulentus (Inkstain Bolete)[17]
Gomphidius glutinosus (Slimy Spike)[17]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[17]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[17]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[17]
Laccaria laccata (Deceiver)[17]
Laccaria proxima (Scurfy Deceiver)[17]
Lactarius hepaticus (Liver Milkcap)[17]
Lactarius tabidus (Birch Milkcap)[17]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[17]
Russula adusta (Blackening Brittlegill)[17]
Russula foetens (Stinking Brittlegill)[17]
Russula xerampelina (Crab Brittlegill)[17]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[17]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[17]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Amanita gemmata (Jewelled Amanita)[17]
Cantharellus cibarius (Chanterelle)[17]
Gomphidius glutinosus (Slimy Spike)[17]
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Poisonpie)[17]
Hydnum albidum (Wood Hedgehog)[17]
Hygrophorus lucorum (Larch Woodwax)[10]
Inocybe subcarpta[10]
Laccaria bicolor (Bicoloured Deceiver)[17]
Lactarius rufus (Rufous Milkcap)[17]
Lycoperdon perlatum (Common Puffball)[17]
Paxillus involutus (Brown Rollrim)[17]
Porphyrellus porphyrosporus (Dusky Bolete)[10]
Porphyrellus sordidus (Cep)[17]
Rhizopogon villosulus[10]
Rhizopogon vinicolor[10]
Russula albonigra[10]
Russula delica (Milk White Brittlegill)[10]
Scleroderma citrinum (Common Earthball)[17]
Suillus lakei[10]
Thelephora terrestris (Earthfan)[17]
Tricholoma virgatum (Ashen Knight)[17]
Truncocolumella citrina[10]
Parasitized by 
Arceuthobium douglasii (Doulas fir dwarf mistletoe)[10]
Armillaria ostoyae (Dark Honey Fungus)[17]
Chrysophana placida[10]
Fuscoporia ferrea[10]
Ganoderma lucidum[10]
Heterobasidion annosum (Root Rot)[17]
Laetiporus sulphureus[10]
Melampsora laricis-populina[10]
Parataenia chrysochlora (golden buprestid)[10]
Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii[10]
Phaeolus schweinitzii (Dyer’s Mazegill)[17]
Rhabdocline pseudotsugae[10]
Sparassis crispa[17]
Shelter for 
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)[17]
Arborimus pomo (Sonoma tree vole)[29]

Range Map

W North America, from British Columbia to Central Mexico (Puebla) TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 COL IDA MNT ORE WAS WYO 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXC-PU MXE-CO MXE-CU MXE-DU MXE-HI MXE-SL MXE-ZA MXN-SO; W North America: from British Columbia to Central Mexico (Puebla). TDWG: 71 ABT BRC 73 COL IDA MNT ORE WAS WYO 76 ARI CAL NEV UTA 77 NWM TEX 79 MXC-PU MXE-CO MXE-CU MXE-DU MXE-HI MXE-SL MXE-ZA MXN-SO;



Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Plants For A Future licensed under a Creative Commons License
4Wood Janka Hardness Scale/Chart J W Morlan's Unique Wood Gifts
5PLANTATT - Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats, M. O. Hill, C. D. Preston & D. B. Roy, Biological Records Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2004)
6ECOFACT 2a Technical Annex - Ellenberg’s indicator values for British Plants, M O Hill, J O Mountford, D B Roy & R G H Bunce (1999)
7Forest Inventory and Analysis DB version 5.1, May 4, 2013, U.S. Forest Service
8HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
9Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
10Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
11New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Plant-SyNZ™ database
12Aplodontia rufa, Leslie N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 431, pp. 1-10 (1993)
13Spermophilus lateralis, Molly A. Bartels and Doug P. Thompson, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 440, pp. 1-8 (1993)
15Negron, Jose F. 1995. Cone and Seed Insects Associated with Piñon Pine. In: Shaw, Douglas W.; Aldon, Earl F.; LoSapio, Carol, technical coordinators. Desired future conditions for piñon- juniper ecosystems: Proceedings of the symposium; 1994 August 8-12; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 97-106.
16Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
17Ecology of Commanster
18Neotoma cinerea, Felisa A. Smith, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 564, pp. 1-8 (1997)
19Bighorn Sheep Diet Selection and Forage Quality in Central Idaho, Guy D. Wagner and James M. Peek, Northwest Science, Vol. 80, No.4, 2006, pp. 246-258
20Peromyscus boylii (Rodentia: Cricetidae), MATINA C. KALCOUNIS-RUEPPELL AND TRACEY R. SPOON, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 838:1–14 (2009)
22Sciurus arizonensis, Troy L. Best and Suzanne Riedel, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 496, pp. 1-5 (1995)
23Sciurus griseus, Leslie N. Carraway and B. J. Verts, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 474, pp. 1-7 (1994)
24Tamias cinereicollis, Clayton D. Hilton and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 436, pp. 1-5 (1993)
25Tamias quadrimaculatus, Robin G. Clawson, Joseph A. Clawson, and Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 469, pp. 1-6 (1994)
26Tamias ruficaudus, Troy L. Best, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 452, pp. 1-7 (1993)
27Tamias umbrinus (Rodentia: Sciuridae), JANET K. BRAUN, AUBREY A. JOHNSON, AND MICHAEL A. MARES, MAMMALIAN SPECIES 43(889):216–227 (2011)
28Tamiasciurus douglasii, Michael A. Steele, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 630, pp. 1-8 (1999)
29Arborimus pomo, Michael D. Adam and John P. Hayes, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 593, pp. 1-5 (1998)
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
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