Plantae > Tracheophyta > Magnoliopsida > Magnoliales > Annonaceae > Annona > Annona squamosa

Annona squamosa (sugar apple)

Synonyms: Annona asiatica; Annona cinerea; Annona forskahlii; Annona glabra; Guanabanus squamosus; Xylopia frutescens; Xylopia glabra; Xylopicron glabrum

Wikipedia Abstract

Annona squamosa is a small, well-branched tree or shrub from the family Annonaceae that bears edible fruits called sugar-apples. It tolerates a tropical lowland climate better than its relatives Annona reticulata and Annona cherimola (whose fruits often share the same name) helping make it the most widely cultivated of these species.
View Wikipedia Record: Annona squamosa

Invasive Species

Annona squamosa is native to tropical America and perhaps the Caribbean. Annona squamosa is the most cultivated species of the genus Annona and it grows wild in virtually all tropical areas. It is naturalized in Florida and in the south of the State of Bahia in Brazil, and it is invasive in other regions.
View ISSG Record: Annona squamosa


Height [1]  27 feet (8.2 m)
Width [1]  21 feet (6.3 m)
Air Quality Improvement [1]  Low
Allergen Potential [1]  Medium-Low
Carbon Capture [1]  Low
Screening - Summer [2]  Moderate
Screening - Winter [2]  Porous
Shade Percentage [1]  90 %
Temperature Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Wind Reduction [1]  Medium-Low
Hardiness Zone Minimum [1]  USDA Zone: 10 Low Temperature: 30 F° (-1.1 C°) → 40 F° (4.4 C°)
Hardiness Zone Maximum [1]  USDA Zone: 11 Low Temperature: 40 F° (4.4 C°) → 50 F° (10 C°)
Light Preference [2]  Full Sun
Soil Fertility [2]  Infertile
Water Use [1]  High to Moderate
Flower Color [2]  Yellow
Foliage Color [2]  Green
Fruit Color [2]  Green
Flower Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Fruit Conspicuous [2]  Yes
Bloom Period [2]  Summer
Drought Tolerance [2]  High
Frost Free Days [2]  1 year
Fruit/Seed Abundance [2]  Medium
Fruit/Seed Begin [2]  Fall
Fruit/Seed End [2]  Fall
Growth Form [2]  Single Crown
Growth Period [2]  Summer, Fall
Hazards [2]  Slight Toxicity
Leaf Type [3]  Deciduous
Lifespan [2]  Perennial
Propagation [2]  Bare Root, Container, Cutting, Seed
Root Depth [2]  24 inches (61 cm)
Seed Vigor [2]  Medium
Shape/Orientation [2]  Rounded
Specific Gravity [4]  0.49
Structure [3]  Tree

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Barra Honda National Park II 5689 Costa Rica  
Guanacaste National Park II 85819 Costa Rica  
Kruger National Park II 4718115 Mpumalanga, South Africa


Abgrallaspis cyanophylli (cyanophyllum scale)[5]
Acrocercops coloptila[6]
Alecanium hirsutum[5]
Amblypelta lutescens[7]
Anastrepha fraterculus (South American fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly)[8]
Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly)[8]
Anonaepestis bengalella[6]
Aonidiella orientalis (Oriental Scale)[5]
Artibeus jamaicensis (Jamaican fruit-eating bat)[9]
Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale)[5]
Attacus atlas (Atlas moth)[6]
Autoba rubra[6]
Cerconota anonella[6]
Ceroplastes deodorensis[5]
Ceroplastes rubens (pink wax scale)[5]
Ceroplastes rusci (barnacle wax scale)[5]
Ceroplastes sinensis (hard wax scale)[5]
Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular black scale)[10]
Coccus longulus (long brown scale)[5]
Cocytius antaeus (Giant sphinx)[6]
Cocytius duponchel[6]
Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat)[11]
Delias hyparete (Painted jezebel butterfly)[6]
Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug)[5]
Dysmicoccus grassii[5]
Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (annona mealybug)[5]
Eulemur fulvus (brown lemur)[12]
Eumeta cervina[6]
Ferrisia virgata (grey mealybug)[5]
Gonodonta nutrix (Citrus Fruitpiercer)[6]
Gonodonta pyrgo[6]
Graphium agamemnon (Tailed jay swallowtail)[6]
Graphium angolanus (Jay swallowtail)[6]
Graphium doson (Common jay swallowtail)[7]
Graphium eurypylus (Pale green triangle butterfly)[13]
Graphium policenes (Common Swordtail)[7]
Guastica semilutea[6]
Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale)[5]
Howardia biclavis (mining scale)[5]
Icerya aegyptiaca[5]
Icerya albolutea[5]
Icerya formicarum[5]
Icerya jaihind <Unverified Name>[5]
Lagosinia strachani[5]
Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug)[5]
Milanion leucaspis[6]
Nephopterix beharella[6]
Nipaecoccus nipae (coconut mealybug)[5]
Paracoccus marginatus (papaya mealybug)[5]
Parasaissetia nigra (nigra scale)[10]
Perissopneumon ferox[5]
Philephedra tuberculosa[5]
Pinnaspis aspidistrae <Unverified Name>[5]
Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale)[5]
Planococcus lilacinus (citrus mealybug)[5]
Planococcus litchi[5]
Planococcus minor (Pacific mealybug)[5]
Platynota rostrana[6]
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (gingging scale)[5]
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (false oleander scale)[5]
Pseudococcus elisae (banana mealybug)[5]
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (banana mealybug)[5]
Pseudococcus odermatti[5]
Pteropus giganteus (Indian flying fox)[14]
Rastrococcus iceryoides[5]
Rousettus leschenaultii (Leschenault's rousette)[14]
Saissetia coffeae (brown scale)[5]
Simplicia inflexalis[6]
Stenoma sciogama[6]
Tachardina brachystegiae[5]
Tessarobelus guerini[5]
Tortrix dinota[6]
Zosterops natalis (Christmas White-eye)[15]


Parasitized by 
Criconema mutabile <Unverified Name>[13]
Dendrophthoe falcata[7]
Helicotylenchus dihystera <Unverified Name>[13]




Attributes / relations provided by
1i-Tree Species v. 4.0, developed by the USDA Forest Service's Northern Research Station and SUNY-ESF using the Horticopia, Inc. plant database.
2USDA Plants Database, U. S. Department of Agriculture
3Kattge, J. et al. (2011b) TRY - a global database of plant traits Global Change Biology 17:2905-2935
4Jérôme Chave, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Timothy R. Baker, Tomás A. Easdale, Hans ter Steege, Campbell O. Webb, 2006. Regional and phylogenetic variation of wood density across 2,456 neotropical tree species. Ecological Applications 16(6), 2356 - 2367
5Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. & Gibson, G.A.P. ScaleNet 4 November 2009
6HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants Gaden S. Robinson, Phillip R. Ackery, Ian J. Kitching, George W. Beccaloni AND Luis M. Hernández
7Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
8Norrbom, A.L. 2004. Fruit fly (Tephritidae) host plant database. Version Nov, 2004.
9Artibeus jamaicensis, Jorge Ortega and Iván Castro-Arellano, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 662, pp. 1–9 (2001)
10Biological Records Centre Database of Insects and their Food Plants
11Temporal patterns of resource use by the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae), Elangovan, V | Marimuthu, G | Kunz, TH, Journal of Mammalogy [J. Mammal.]. Vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 161-165. 2001.
12Plants Consumed by Eulemur fulvus in Comoros Islands (Mayotte) and Potential Effects on Intestinal Parasites, A. Nègre, L. Tarnaud, J. F. Roblot, J. C. Gantier and J. Guillot, International Journal of Primatology, Vol. 27, No. 6, December 2006
13Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
14Sudhakaran, M.R. & P.S. Doss (2012). Food and foraging preferences of three pteropo- did bats in southern India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 4(1): 2295-2303
15del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
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