Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Limanda > Limanda aspera

Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole; Northern sole)

Synonyms: Limanda asprella; Pleuronectes asper
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Wikipedia Abstract

The yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera, is a flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is a demersal fish that lives on soft, sandy bottoms at depths of up to 700 metres (2,300 ft), though it is most commonly found at depths of around 91 metres (299 ft). Its native habitat is the temperate waters of the northern Pacific, from Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and Barkley Sound on the west coast of Canada. Males grow up to 49 cm (19 in) in length, though the common length is around 33.5 cm (13.2 in). The maximum recorded weight is 1.7 kg (3.7 lb), and the maximum recorded lifespan is 26 years.
View Wikipedia Record: Limanda aspera


Adult Weight [1]  234 grams
Female Maturity [2]  8 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  26 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[3]
Chionoecetes bairdi (southern Tanner crab)[4]
Chionoecetes opilio (snow crab)[4]
Clinocardium nuttallii (Nuttall cockle)[3]
Crangon dalli (ridged crangon)[4]
Echinarachnius parma (common sand dollar)[3]
Erimacrus isenbeckii (hair crab)[3]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[3]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[3]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[3]
Hyas coarctatus (Arctic lyre crab)[3]
Icelus spiniger (Thorny sculpin)[3]
Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)[3]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[3]
Lissocrangon stylirostris (smooth bay shrimp)[4]
Lumpenus fabricii (Slender eelblenny)[3]
Macoma moesta (flat macoma)[3]
Mactromeris polynyma (Arctic surfclam)[3]
Neaeromya compressa (compressed montacutid)[3]
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)[3]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[3]
Sarritor frenatus (Sawback poacher)[3]
Serripes groenlandicus (Greenland cockle)[3]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Yoldia aeolica (halfsmooth yoldia)[3]
Yoldia amygdalea[3]
Yoldia myalis (oval yoldia)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alcichthys elongatus1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)1
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)1
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)1
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)2
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)3
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Bathyraja maculata (White-blotched skate)1
Bathyraja matsubarai (Dusky-purple skate)1
Bathyraja minispinosa (Smallthorn skate)1
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)1
Bathyraja violacea (Okhotsk skate)1
Beringraja binoculata (Big skate)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)1
Careproctus furcellus (Emarginate snailfish)1
Crystallichthys cyclospilus (Blotched snailfish)1
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)2
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)3
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)3
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)2
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)3
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)3
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)1
Myoxocephalus ochotensis (Okhotsk sculpin)1
Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Sculpin)1
Nansenia candida (Bluethroat argentine)1
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)1
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)1
Podothecus accipenserinus (Sturgeon-like sea-poacher)1
Psettichthys melanostictus (Pacific sand sole)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)2
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)1


Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[3]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[3]
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)[3]
Beringraja binoculata (Big skate)[3]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[3]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[3]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[3]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[3]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[3]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Hemitripterus bolini (Bigmouth sculpin)[5]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[4]
Homo sapiens (man)[3]
Myoxocephalus jaok (Plain sculpin)[3]
Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Sculpin)[3]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[3]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[3]


Parasitized by 
Bothriocephalus claviceps[3]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[3]
Grillotia erinaceus[6]
Nybelinia surmenicola[6]
Podocotyle atomon[3]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[6]


Alaska (USA); Arctic Ocean; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Chukchi Sea; East Bering Sea; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: Korea and the Sea of Japan to the Sea of Okhotsk, Bering Sea, and Barkley Sound, Canada. Reported from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea (Ref. 28503).; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; West Bering Sea;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p.
5Life history traits of sculpins in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, Todd T. TenBrink and Kerim Y. Aydin, NPRB Project 628 Final Report (2009)
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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