Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Pseudopleuronectes > Pseudopleuronectes americanus
 

Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder; Winter flounder; Sole; Plie rouge; Lemon sole; Georges Bank flounder; Flounder; Dab; Carrelet; Blackback)

Synonyms: Platessa pusilla; Pleuronectes americanus; Pleuronectes planus; Pseudopleuronectes dignabilis
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Wikipedia Abstract

The winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, (also known as black back) is a right-eyed ("dextral") flatfish of the family Pleuronectidae. It is native to coastal waters of the western north Atlantic coast, from Labrador, Canada to Georgia, United States. In the waters from Newfoundland down through Massachusetts Bay it is the most common near-shore (shallow-water) flounder.
View Wikipedia Record: Pseudopleuronectes americanus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  4.37 lbs (1.98 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years 9 months
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 10 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  14 years
Migration [3]  Migratory

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada

Prey / Diet

Actinauge longicornis (Longhorn hitchhiker anemone)[4]
Aeginina longicornis[4]
Aglaophamus circinata[4]
Alitta acutifolia (ambergele zeeduizendpoot)[5]
Alitta succinea (pile worm)[4]
Ameritella agilis (northern dwarf tellin)[5]
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Ampelisca abdita[5]
Ampelisca macrocephala[4]
Ampelisca vadorum[5]
Ampharete acutifrons[4]
Ampharete lindstroemi[4]
Ampharete oculata[5]
Argissa hamatipes[4]
Astarte arctica (Arctic astarte)[4]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)[5]
Cancer irroratus (rock crab)[4]
Cancer plebejus (Atlantic rock crab)[5]
Ceriantheopsis americana (American tube-dwelling anemone)[5]
Chone infundibuliformis[6]
Cirratulus cirratus (bristleworm)[4]
Cistenides granulata[4]
Clymenella zonalis (bambooworm)[4]
Corophium crassicorne[4]
Corophium lacustre[5]
Crangon septemspinosa (sevenspine bay shrimp)[5]
Diastylis quadrispinosa[4]
Echinarachnius parma (common sand dollar)[4]
Edotia montosa[4]
Ericthonius rubricornis[4]
Gammarus lawrencianus[5]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[4]
Goniada gigantea[4]
Leptocheirus pinguis[5]
Marenzelleria viridis (Rogoza amerykanska)[5]
Mediomastus ambiseta[4]
Melinna cristata[5]
Mercenaria mercenaria (northern quahog)[5]
Neomysis americana (Mysid shrimp)[5]
Nephtys incisa[5]
Ninoe nigripes[4]
Nucula proxima (Atlantic nutclam)[5]
Ovalipes ocellatus (ocellate lady crab)[5]
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)[4]
Photis pollex[4]
Phyllodoce arenae[4]
Phyllodoce mucosa[4]
Pontogeneia inermis[6]
Protomedeia fasciata[4]
Pseudodiaptomus coronatus[5]
Pseudoleptocuma minus[4]
Pseudopotamilla reniformis[4]
Retusa obtusa (Arctic barrel-bubble)[4]
Sabellaria vulgaris (Honeycomb worm)[5]
Scoletoma fragilis[6]
Spio setosa[4]
Spiophanes bombyx (Bee spionid)[6]
Spisula solidissima (Surf clam)[5]
Stenopleustes inermis[4]
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Green sea urchin)[7]
Tharyx acutus[4]
Tritia trivittata (threeline mudsnail)[4]
Unciola irrorata[5]
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa mediocris (Hickory shad)1
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)6
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)1
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)1
Anchoa hepsetus (Broad-striped anchovy)1
Ariopsis felis (Sea catfish)1
Brevoortia aurea (Brazilian menhaden)2
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)1
Brosme brosme (Tusk)1
Calamus leucosteus (Whitebone porgy)1
Carcharhinus obscurus (Whaler shark)2
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)3
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)5
Centropomus undecimalis (Thin snook)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)3
Citharichthys arctifrons (Gulf Stream flounder)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Saddled grenadier)3
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)4
Cynoscion striatus (Striped weakfish)1
Dasyatis americana (Kit)1
Dasyatis centroura (clam cracker)1
Dasyatis say (Say's stingray)1
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)1
Dipturus laevis (Barndoor skate)1
Epinephelus marginatus (Yellowbelly rockcod)1
Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)1
Haemulon aurolineatum (Seize)1
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)1
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)3
Lagodon rhomboides (Salt-water bream)1
Larimus fasciatus (Banded drum)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)4
Lepidochelys kempii (Atlantic Ridley, Kemp’s Ridley Seaturtle)3
Lepophidium profundorum (Fawn cusk-eel)4
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)9
Leucoraja garmani (Freckled skate)2
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)3
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)5
Limnodromus griseus (Short-billed Dowitcher)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)4
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Membras martinica (Rough silverside)1
Menidia menidia (Tidewater silverside)1
Menticirrhus americanus (Woundhead)1
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Northern kingfish)4
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)4
Micropogonias furnieri (Whitemouth drummer)2
Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croacker)2
Microstomus pacificus (Slippery sole)1
Morone americana (Wreckfish)2
Morone saxatilis (Striper bass)1
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)3
Mycteroperca microlepis (Velvet rockfish)1
Myliobatis freminvillei (Blue-nosed ray)1
Myoxocephalus aenaeus (Little sculpin)3
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)2
Ophichthus cruentifer (Snake eel)2
Ophidion marginatum (Striped cusk-eel)1
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)3
Paralichthys orbignyanus2
Peristedion miniatum (Armored searobin)2
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)2
Prionotus carolinus (Searobin)6
Prionotus evolans (Striped searobin)4
Rachycentron canadum (Sergent fish)2
Raja eglanteria (Clearnose skate)3
Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Atlantic sharp-nosed shark)1
Rhomboplites aurorubens (Vermillion snapper)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Sciaenops ocellatus (Spotted bass)3
Scomber scombrus (Split)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)5
Scyliorhinus retifer (Chain dogfish)1
Somateria spectabilis (King Eider)1
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)8
Syngnathus fuscus (Northern pipefish)1
Tautoga onitis (Tautog)1
Tautogolabrus adspersus (Sea perch)2
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)6
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)6
Zoarces americanus (Ocean pout)2

Predators

Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[8]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[6]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[4]
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)[4]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)[4]
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)[4]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[9]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[4]
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[10]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[4]
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[11]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[11]
Bothrimonus sturionis[11]
Contracaecum osculatum[11]
Corynosoma semerme[11]
Corynosoma wegeneri[11]
Cryptocotyle lingua[11]
Derogenes varicus[11]
Diplocotyle olrikii[11]
Echinorhynchus gadi[11]
Echinorhynchus laurentianus[11]
Genolinea laticauda[11]
Grillotia erinaceus[11]
Gyrodactylus pleuronecti[4]
Gyrodactylus pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[11]
Hemiurus levinseni[11]
Homalometron pallidum[11]
Lecithaster gibbosus[11]
Lepidapedon elongatum[11]
Macvicaria soleae[11]
Podocotyle atomon[11]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[11]
Steganoderma formosum[11]
Stenakron vetustum[11]
Stephanostomum baccatum[11]
Steringophorus furciger[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium

Distribution

Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Canada; Gulf of Mexico; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Penobscot Bay; Scotian Shelf; USA (contiguous states); Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Georgia, USA.;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5 Steimle FW, Pikanowski RA, McMillan DG, Zetlin CA, Wilk SJ. 2000. Demersal Fish and American Lobster Diets in the Lower Hudson - Raritan Estuary. US Dep Commer, NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 161; 106 p.
6Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000)
7Foods and predators of the green sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in Newfoundland waters, J. H. HIMMELMAN and D. H. STEELE, Marine Biology 9, 315-322 (1971)
8Estimated Fish Consumption by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata), in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, M. O. Hammill, C. Lydersen, K. M. Kovacs and B. Sjare, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 249–257 (1997)
9Food and Ontogenetic Shifts in Feeding of the Goosefish, Lophius Americanus, Michael P. Armstrong, John A. Musick, and James A. Colvocoresses, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 18: 99–103
10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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