Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Salmoniformes > Salmonidae > Salmo > Salmo trutta
 

Salmo trutta (Brown trout)

Wikipedia Abstract

The brown trout (Salmo trutta) is an originally European species of salmonid fish. It includes both purely freshwater populations, referred to Salmo trutta morpha fario and S. trutta morpha lacustris, and anadromous forms known as the sea trout, S. trutta morpha trutta. The latter migrates to the oceans for much of its life and returns to freshwater only to spawn.
View Wikipedia Record: Salmo trutta

Infraspecies

Salmo trutta aralensis (Aral salmon)
Salmo trutta fario (Brook trout) (Attributes)
Salmo trutta lacustris (Lake trout) (Attributes)
Salmo trutta macrostigma (Salmon)
Salmo trutta oxianus (Amu-Darya trout)
Salmo trutta trutta (Brown trout)

Invasive Species

Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
View ISSG Record: Salmo trutta

Attributes

Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Adult Length [2]  4.6 feet (140 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  Hidden
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (rock-gravel)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Litter Size [2]  8,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  38 years
Water Biome [1]  Rivers and Streams

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
ALTO CINCA 36250 Spain  
Abavas senleja 36900 Latvia  
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alta Valsesia e Valli Otro, Vogna, Gronda, Artogna e Sorba 46789 Italy  
Alte Valli Anzasca, Antrona e Bognanco 53311 Italy  
Alto Garda Bresciano 53192 Italy  
Ances purvi un mezi 21676 Latvia  
Arthur's Pass National Park II 257008 South Island, New Zealand
BARRANCO DEL DULCE 20628 Spain  
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Bayerischer Wald National Park II 59790 Germany
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
COTIELLA - SIERRA FERRERA 62948 Spain  
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Dagestan State Nature Reserve 47101 Dagestan, Russia
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
EL TURBÓN Y SIERRA DE SÍS 60101 Spain  
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Exmoor Heaths 26455 England, United Kingdom
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Gimån; Uppströms Holmsjön 35718 Sweden  
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Inverpolly 29349 Scotland, United Kingdom
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kavkazskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 692723 Krasnodar, Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Russia
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve II 256073 Western Cape, South Africa  
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Kyyvesi (SPA) 17821 Finland  
LOS VALLES 79029 Spain  
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
MONTES DE TOLEDO 538722 Spain  
MONTES UNIVERSALES - SIERRA DEL TREMEDAL 79316 Spain  
Monte Rosa 21095 Italy  
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Nordre älvs estuarium 17508 Sweden  
North Pennine Moors 254789 England, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
ORDESA Y MONTE PERDIDO 38568 Spain  
Oberlausitzer Heide - und Teichlandschaft Nature Reserve IV 32467 Germany  
POSETS - MALADETA 82205 Spain  
Paanajärvi National Park 258158 Karelia, Russia
Parco Naturale Adamello 53676 Italy  
Parco Nazionale dello Stelvio National Park V 333737 Italy
Parco Regionale Orobie Bergamasche 121015 Italy  
Parco Regionale Orobie Valtellinesi 56377 Italy  
Pirin 99722 Bulgaria  
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Puulavesi 40886 Finland  
River Tay 23469 Scotland, United Kingdom
SIERRA DE AYLLON 225747 Spain  
SIERRA DE CANCIÁS - SILVES 19573 Spain  
SIERRA DE MONCAYO - LOS FAYOS - SIERRA DE ARMAS 44956 Spain  
SIERRA NORTE 438558 Spain  
SIERRA Y CAÑONES DE GUARA 201020 Spain  
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Sliteres nacionalais parks 39895 Latvia  
Smolenskoe Poozerie National Park 361359 Smolensk, Russia
Sochi National Park 478735 Krasnodar, Russia
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Sumava Biosphere Reserve 412955 Czech Republic  
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Tjeggelvas 81076 Sweden  
Tzentralen Balkan 177099 Bulgaria  
VIÑAMALA 62053 Spain  
Val Formazza 54914 Italy  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Västra Vättern 146577 Sweden  
Vättern (södra) 122343 Sweden  
Vättern (östra) 158858 Sweden  
Waddensea of Hamburg Biosphere Reserve 31422 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Yuzhno-Uralsky State Nature Reserve 624742 Chelyabinsk, Bashkortostan, Russia
Ziemelgauja 53743 Latvia  
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[3]
Coregonus hoyi (Bloater)[3]
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)[3]
Cyclops scutifer[4]
Eudiaptomus graciloides[4]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[4]
Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Alaska fourhorn sculpin)[3]
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)[3]
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)[3]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[3]
Pseudacris crucifer (Spring Peeper)[5]
Rana cascadae (Cascades Frog)[5]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck)1
Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)1
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Esox lucius (Jack)1
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)2
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)2
Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)1
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)2
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)2
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)7
Melanitta nigra (Black Scoter)1
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)2
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)7
Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii (Cutthroat trout)1
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)7
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)7
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)7
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Seatrout)1
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)1
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)3
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)7
Sander vitreus (Walleye)7
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)2
Thymallus arcticus (Arctic grayling)1

Predators

Aonyx capensis (African Clawless Otter)[6]
Gavia arctica (Black-throated Loon)[4]
Gavia stellata (Red-throated Loon)[4]
Hydrictis maculicollis (Spotted-necked Otter)[7]
Lontra provocax (Southern River Otter)[8]
Petromyzon marinus[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[9]
Acanthocephalus clavula[9]
Acanthocephalus dirus[9]
Acanthocephalus echigoensis[9]
Acanthocephalus falcatus[9]
Acanthocephalus lucii[9]
Acanthocephalus tumescens[9]
Acanthostomoides apophalliformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Allocreadium transversale <Unverified Name>[9]
Anisakis simplex[9]
Apatemon gracilis[9]
Apophallus brevis[9]
Azygia lucii[9]
Bothrimonus sturionis[9]
Bothriocephalus infunibuliformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Brachyphallus crenatus[9]
Bunocotyle cingulata[9]
Bunodera luciopercae[9]
Camallanus corderoi <Unverified Name>[9]
Camallanus lacustris[9]
Camallanus truncatus[9]
Capillaria coregoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Capillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[9]
Chilodonella cyprini[10]
Contracaecum aduncum[9]
Corynosoma semerme[9]
Corynosoma strumosum[9]
Crepidostomum farionis[9]
Crepidostomum metoecus[9]
Crowcrocaecum proavitum <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocotyle lingua[9]
Cucullanus antipodeus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cucullanus truttae <Unverified Name>[9]
Cyathocephalus truncatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[9]
Dacnitis truttae <Unverified Name>[9]
Dentitruncus truttae[9]
Derogenes patagonicus <Unverified Name>[9]
Derogenes varicus[9]
Deropegus patagonicus <Unverified Name>[9]
Desmidocercella numidica <Unverified Name>[9]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[9]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[9]
Diphyllobothrium latum[9]
Diplocotyle olrikii[9]
Diplostomum gasterostei[9]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplostomum macrostomum <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplostomum mergi <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[9]
Diplostomum spathaceum[9]
Diplostomum volvens[9]
Diplozoon paradoxum[9]
Discocotyle sagittata[9]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis <Unverified Name>[9]
Echinorhynchus gadi[9]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[9]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[9]
Echinorhynchus truttae[9]
Eubothrium crassum[9]
Eubothrium salvelini[9]
Eustrongylides gadopsis <Unverified Name>[10]
Eustrongylides mergorum <Unverified Name>[9]
Eustrongylides phalacrocoracis <Unverified Name>[10]
Excoitocaecum wisniewski <Unverified Name>[9]
Filochona sulaki <Unverified Name>[9]
Genarches patagonicus <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus aphyae <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus colemanensis[9]
Gyrodactylus derjavini[9]
Gyrodactylus magnificus <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus nov <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus salaris (Salmon Fluke)[9]
Gyrodactylus salmonis[9]
Gyrodactylus teuchis <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus thymalli <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus truttae <Unverified Name>[9]
Hedruris spinigera[9]
Hemiurus communis[9]
Hemiurus levinseni[9]
Hemiurus luehei[9]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[9]
Heterotyphlum obtusocaudatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Hysterothylacium fabri <Unverified Name>[9]
Hysterothylacium gadi <Unverified Name>[9]
Hysterothylacium patagonense <Unverified Name>[9]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[9]
Ichthyocotylurus metacercaria <Unverified Name>[9]
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (freshwater white spot disease)[10]
Lecithaster gibbosus[9]
Lecithocladium magnacetabulum[9]
Lecithocladium seriolellae[9]
Ligula intestinalis[9]
Metabronema salvelini <Unverified Name>[9]
Metagonimus yokogawai[9]
Neoechinorhynchus crassus[9]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[9]
Nicolla proavitum <Unverified Name>[9]
Nicolla skrjabini <Unverified Name>[9]
Nicolla testiobliqua <Unverified Name>[9]
Nicolla wisniewskii <Unverified Name>[9]
Oswaldocruzia filiformis <Unverified Name>[9]
Petromyzon marinus (Eel sucker)[3]
Philonema oncorhynchi <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllodistomum conostomum[9]
Phyllodistomum folium[9]
Phyllodistomum megalorchis <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllodistomum simile <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllodistomum umblae <Unverified Name>[9]
Podocotyle atomon[9]
Polymorphus minutus[9]
Polymorphus phippsi[9]
Pomphorhynchus bosniacus[9]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[9]
Porrocaecum ensicaudatum[9]
Proteocephalus exiguus[9]
Proteocephalus longicollis[9]
Proteocephalus neglectus <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudocapillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudochetosoma salmonicola[9]
Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudorhadinorhynchus salmothymi <Unverified Name>[9]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[9]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdochona denudata[9]
Rhabdochona gnedini <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdochona hellichi <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdochona oncorhynchi[9]
Rhabdochona sulaki <Unverified Name>[9]
Schistocephalus solidus[9]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[9]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[9]
Sphaerostomum bramae <Unverified Name>[9]
Spinitectus gordoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Spiroxys contorta <Unverified Name>[9]
Sterliadochona ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[9]
Sterliadochona ssavini <Unverified Name>[9]
Sterliadochona tenuissima <Unverified Name>[9]
Streptocara crassicauda <Unverified Name>[9]
Telogaster opisthorchis[9]
Tetraonchus alaskensis[9]
Tetraonchus gussevi <Unverified Name>[9]
Triaenophorus crassus[9]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[9]
Triaenophorus robustus <Unverified Name>[9]
Truttaedacnitis truttae <Unverified Name>[9]
Tylodelphys clavata[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Columbus Zoo and Aquarium
John G. Shedd Aquarium
London Aquarium
Museum de Besancon
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Universeum Science Center

Distribution

Photos

Citations

Species recognized by , , in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 4Food web topology and parasites in the pelagic zone of a subarctic lake, Per-Arne Amundsen, Kevin D. Lafferty, Rune Knudsen, Raul Primicerio, Anders Klemetsen and Armand M. Kuris, Journal of Animal Ecology 2009, 78, 563–572 5Anurans as prey: an exploratory analysis and size relationships between predators and their prey, L. F. Toledo, R. S. Ribeiro & C. F. B. Haddad, Journal of Zoology 271 (2007) 170–177 6Aonyx capensis, Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 671, pp. 1–6 (2001) 7Lutra maculicollis, Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 712, pp. 1–6 (2002) 8Lontra provocax, Serge Larivière, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 610, pp. 1-4 (1999) 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 10Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Invasive Status provided by Global Invasive Species Database Downloaded on 10 May 2011.
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Images provided by Google Image Search Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access
Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011