Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Anguilliformes > Anguillidae > Anguilla > Anguilla anguilla
 

Anguilla anguilla (River eel; Common eel; Eel; European eel; Freshwater eel; Yellow eel; Weed eel; Sing eel; Silver eel; Al)

Synonyms: Angill angill; Anguilla acutirostris; Anguilla aegyptiaca; Anguilla altirostris; Anguilla ancidda; Anguilla anguillai; Anguilla anguillia; Anguilla bibroni; Anguilla brevirostris; Anguilla callensis; Anguilla canariensis; Anguilla capitone; Anguilla cloacina; Anguilla cuvieri; Anguilla eurystoma; Anguilla fluviatilis; Anguilla hibernica; Anguilla kieneri; Anguilla latirostris; Anguilla linnei; Anguilla marginata; Anguilla mediorostris; Anguilla melanochir; Anguilla microptera; Anguilla migratoria; Anguilla morena; Anguilla nilotica; Anguilla oblongirostris; Anguilla platycephala; Anguilla platyrhynchus; Anguilla savignyi; Anguilla vulgaris; Leptocephalus brevirostris; Muraena anguilla; Muraena anguilla maculata; Muraena oxyrhina; Muraena platyrhina
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Wikipedia Abstract

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a species of eel, a snake-like, catadromous fish. They can reach a length of 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) in exceptional cases, but are normally around 60–80 cm (2.0–2.6 ft), and rarely reach more than 1 m (3 ft 3 in).
View Wikipedia Record: Anguilla anguilla

Endangered Species

Status: Critically Endangered
View IUCN Record: Anguilla anguilla

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  8.00 lbs (3.63 kg)
Female Maturity [4]  12 years 6 months
Male Maturity [2]  11 years
Brood Dispersal [3]  In the open
Brood Guarder [3]  No
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Maximum Longevity [4]  88 years
Migration [1]  Catadromous
Water Biome [1]  Benthic, Coastal, Brackish Water

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Akyatan Lagoon 36324 Adana, Turkey      
Arxipèlag de Cabrera 50735 Spain  
Badies de Pollença i Alcúdia 75991 Spain    
Bassa Valnerina: Monte Fionchi - Cascata delle Marmore 14933 Italy  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Burgasko ezero 7641 Bulgaria  
Cairnsmore of Fleet, Silver Flowe, and Merrick Kells Biosphere Reserve 8794 Scotland, United Kingdom
Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands 354692 Scotland, United Kingdom
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Crinitzer Wasser und Teiche im Kirchberger Granitgebiet 499 Germany  
D'Addaia a s'Albufera 6941 Spain  
Dartmoor 57244 England, United Kingdom
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Dolina Lupawy 13612 Poland  
Dolina Wieprzy i Studnicy 35457 Poland  
Fiume Po - tratto vercellese alessandrino 34859 Italy  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Fontanazzo 133 Italy  
Helme mit Mühlgräben 111 Germany  
Isle of Portland to Studland Cliffs 3577 England, United Kingdom
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Keuperhügel und Unstrutniederung bei Mühlhausen 717 Germany  
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
Kleiner Plessower See 251 Germany  
La Mola i s'Albufera de Fornells 3747 Spain    
Lago d'Idro 35 Italy  
Lago dell'Aia (Narni) 576 Italy  
Lago di Occhito 6064 Italy  
Lago di Piediluco - Monte Maro 2864 Italy  
Lago Trasimeno 35838 Italy  
Lama del Badiotto e Garzaia della Brarola 252 Italy  
Limestone Coast of South West Wales/ Arfordir Calchfaen de Orllewin Cymru 3940 Wales, United Kingdom  
Località Fantina - Fiume Fortore 902 Italy  
Loch Druidibeg National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
LOS ALCORNOCALES 414561 Spain  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Mandra - Poda 15162 Bulgaria  
Matheswall/Schmielensee 265 Germany  
Morvern Woods 4763 Scotland, United Kingdom
Neusiedler See-Osterreichischer Teil   Austria      
North Harris 32450 Scotland, United Kingdom
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Oberlauf der Milz 158 Germany  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Palude di Colfiorito 442 Italy  
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve Nature Reserve IV 1352 Portugal  
Pevensey Levels 8860 England, United Kingdom  
Po da Albaredo Arnaboldi ad Arena Po 2241 Italy  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Reserva de la Biosfera de Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve V 1777 Spain  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Reserve Srebarna Managed Reserve IV 2294 Bulgaria  
Rheinsberger Rhin und Hellberge 2123 Germany  
Riserva Regionale Lanca di Gerole 2916 Italy  
River Usk/ Afon Wysg 2490 Wales, United Kingdom  
River Wensum 943 England, United Kingdom  
River Wye/ Afon Gwy 5523 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Roman Wall Loughs 1691 England, United Kingdom  
S'Albufera de Mallorca 5276 Spain    
S'Albufera des Grau 6293 Spain  
Säveån, nedre delen 84 Sweden  
Schaalsee   Germany      
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Schwarzatal ab Goldisthal mit Zuflüssen 4702 Germany  
Ses Salines d'Eivissa i Formentera 40611 Spain  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
SIERRA DE ARACENA Y PICOS DE AROCHE 461592 Spain  
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Dartmoor Woods 5330 England, United Kingdom
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stodmarsh 1395 England, United Kingdom
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Tannbach-Klingefelsen 72 Germany  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Valle del Tevere: Laghi di Corbara - Alviano 17989 Italy  
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Vorsperre-Twistetalsperre 62 Germany  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Weidatal 556 Germany  
Werra bis Treffurt mit Zuflüssen 5585 Germany  

Prey / Diet

Abramis brama (Bream)[5]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[5]
Asellus aquaticus (waterlouse)[6]
Astacus astacus (European crayfish)[5]
Baetis fuscatus[5]
Baetis rhodani (Large dark olive)[5]
Baetis scambus[5]
Baetis vernus[5]
Blicca bjoerkna (White bream)[5]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[5]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[7]
Chironomus plumosus (buzzer midge)[5]
Chydorus sphaericus[5]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[5]
Cottus gobio (Bullhead)[5]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)[5]
Einfeldia carbonaria[5]
Erpobdella octoculata[5]
Gammarus locusta[5]
Gammarus pulex[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[5]
Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)[5]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[5]
Hydropsyche pellucidula (Grey Flag Caddisfly)[5]
Idotea pelagica[5]
Isoperla grammatica[5]
Jaera albifrons[5]
Lasiocephala basalis[5]
Lepidostoma hirtum[5]
Leuctra fusca[5]
Leuctra geniculata[5]
Microchironomus tener[5]
Neomysis integer[5]
Nigrobaetis niger[5]
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)[5]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[5]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[5]
Pholis gunnellus (Tissy)[5]
Phoxinus phoxinus (Minnow)[5]
Phryganea grandis[5]
Platambus maculatus[5]
Polycentropus flavomaculatus[5]
Polypedilum nubeculosum[5]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[5]
Potamophylax latipennis[5]
Radix labiata[5]
Rhyacophila dorsalis[5]
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)[5]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[5]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[5]
Sericostoma personatum (Welshman's Button Caddisfly)[5]
Serratella ignita[5]
Sialis lutaria (Common Alderfly)[5]
Simulium ornatum[5]
Sphaerium corneum (European fingernailclam)[5]
Stagnicola palustris[5]
Tanypus punctipennis[5]
Valvata piscinalis (European stream valvata)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Gobius niger (Black goby)1
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)1
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)1
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)1
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)1

Predators

Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[5]
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)[5]
Derogenes varicus[5]
Esox lucius (Jack)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[5]
Lutra lutra (European Otter)[5]
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[5]
Molva molva (Ling)[5]
Natrix natrix (European Grass Snake)[8]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[9]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[5]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[5]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[5]
Podocotyle staffordi[5]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[5]
Squalius cephalus (European chub)[5]
Squatina dumeril (Atlantic angelshark)[5]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Gymnophallus choledochus[5]
Levinseniella brachysoma[5]
Maritrema subdolum[5]
Profilicollis botulus[5]
Sacculina carcini[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephaloides propinquus[10]
Acanthocephalus anguillae[10]
Acanthocephalus clavula[10]
Acanthocephalus haranti[10]
Acanthocephalus lucii[10]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[10]
Anguillicola globiceps <Unverified Name>[10]
Anguillicola novaezelandiae[10]
Anisakis simplex[10]
Ascaris anguillae <Unverified Name>[10]
Ascaris labiata <Unverified Name>[10]
Azygia lucii[10]
Bathybothrium rectangulum <Unverified Name>[10]
Bothriocephalus claviceps[10]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[10]
Brachyphallus crenatus[10]
Bucephalus anguillae[10]
Bucephalus polymorphus[10]
Bunodera luciopercae[10]
Camallanus lacustris[10]
Camallanus truncatus[10]
Contracaecum aduncum[10]
Contracaecum rudolphii <Unverified Name>[10]
Contracaecum type <Unverified Name>[10]
Corynosoma semerme[10]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Crepidostomum farionis[10]
Crepidostomum metoecus[10]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[10]
Cucullanus elegans <Unverified Name>[10]
Cucullanus heterochrous <Unverified Name>[10]
Cucullanus truttae <Unverified Name>[10]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[10]
Daniconema anguillae <Unverified Name>[10]
Derogenes varicus[10]
Deropristis inflata[10]
Diphyllobothrium latum[10]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[10]
Diplostomum gasterostei[10]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[10]
Diplostomum parviventosum <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum pseudobaeri <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum spathaceum[10]
Echinorhynchus angustatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Echinorhynchus dasyacanthus <Unverified Name>[10]
Echinorhynchus gadi[10]
Echinorhynchus truttae[10]
Eubothrium crassum[10]
Eustrongylides excisus <Unverified Name>[10]
Eustrongylides mergorum <Unverified Name>[10]
Goezia anguillae <Unverified Name>[10]
Goezia ascaroides[10]
Goezia inermis <Unverified Name>[10]
Gyrodactylus anguillae[10]
Gyrodactylus lucii <Unverified Name>[10]
Hedruris androphora <Unverified Name>[10]
Hedruris spinigera[10]
Helicometra fasciata[10]
Helicometra gobii[10]
Helicometra mutabilis[10]
Helicometra pulchella[10]
Hemiurus communis[10]
Hepaticola petruschewskii[10]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[10]
Lecithaster gibbosus[10]
Lecithochirium furcolabiatum[10]
Lecithochirium musculus[10]
Lecithochirium rufoviride[10]
Ligula intestinalis[10]
Macvicaria crassigula[10]
Metagonimus yokogawai[10]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[10]
Nicolla gallica[10]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[10]
Paraquimperia tenerrima <Unverified Name>[10]
Paratenuisentis ambiguus[10]
Philometra ovata <Unverified Name>[10]
Phyllodistomum folium[10]
Plagioporus niloticus <Unverified Name>[10]
Podocotyle angulata[10]
Podocotyle atomon[10]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[10]
Proteocephalus macrocephalus[10]
Proteocephalus percae[10]
Proteocephalus tetrastomus[10]
Pseudocapillaria tomentosa <Unverified Name>[10]
Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae[10]
Pseudodactylogyrus bini[10]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[10]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[10]
Raphidascaris cristata <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhabdochona aegyptiacus <Unverified Name>[10]
Rhabdochona anguillae <Unverified Name>[10]
Schistocephalus solidus[10]
Sphaerostomum bramae <Unverified Name>[10]
Sphaerostomum globiporum <Unverified Name>[10]
Spinitectus inermis <Unverified Name>[10]
Spiroxys contorta <Unverified Name>[10]
Stegodexamene anguillae <Unverified Name>[10]
Stephanostomum tenue[10]
Telogaster opisthorchis[10]
Telosentis exiguus[10]
Telosentis molini[10]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[10]
Triaenophorus tricuspidatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Tylodelphys clavata[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Museum de Besancon
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Zoo Zürich
Zoological Society of London
Zoologischer Garten Halle GmbH

Range Map

Atlantic Ocean: Atlantic coast from Scandinavia to Morocco and rivers of North Atlantic, Baltic and Mediterranean seas (Ref. 172, Ref. 51442). Continuous introductions to Asia and South and Central America, but not reproducing. Spawning area in western Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). Also distributed along the coast of Europe from the Black Sea to the White Sea. At least one country reports adverse ecological impact after introduction. Recent genomic DNA studies show that the European eel exhibits isolation by distance, implying that non-random mating and restricted gene flow among eels from different location exists (Ref. 43723).;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 4Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6BARAK, N. A.-E. and MASON, C.F. (1992), Population density, growth and diet of eels, Anguilla anguilla L., in two rivers in eastern England. Aquaculture Research, 23: 59–70 7Costa, J. L., Assis, C. A., Almeida, P. R., Moreira, F. M. and Costa, M. J. (1992), On the food of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla (L.), in the upper zone of the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Journal of Fish Biology, 41: 841–850 8The prey spectrum of Natrix natrix (LINNAEUS, 1758) and Natrix tessellata (LAURENTI, 1768) in sympatric populations (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae), ERNESTO FILIPPI & MASSIMO CAPULA & LUCA LUISELLI & UMBERTO AGRIMI, HERPETOZOA 8 (3/4): 155 -164 Wien, 30. Jänner 1996 9"Organochlorine residues in eggs of Pelecanus crispus and its prey in wetlands of Amvrakikos Gulf, North-western Greece", T.A. Albanis, D.G. Hela, D. Hatzilakos, Chemosphere Volume 31, Issues 11–12, December 1995, Pages 4341–4349 10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Ramsar Sites Information Service Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955 Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators. GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
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