Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Beloniformes > Belonidae > Belone > Belone belone
 

Belone belone (Garfish; Billfish; Gar; Garpike; Greenbone; Hornpike; Needlefish; Mackerel guide; Sea gar; Sea needle; Hornfish; Gar-fish)

Synonyms: Belone acus; Belone bellone; Belone belone belone; Belone belone gracilis; Belone cornidii; Belone gracilis; Belone linnei; Belone longirostris; Belone rostrata; Belone undecimradiata; Belone vulgaris; Esox belone; Hemiramphus balticus; Hemiramphus behnii; Hemiramphus europaeus; Hemiramphus obtusus; Macrognathus scolopax
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Wikipedia Abstract

The garfish (Belone belone), or sea needle, is a pelagic, oceanodromous needlefish found in brackish and marine waters of the Atlantic, the Mediterranean Sea, Caribbean Sea and the Baltic Sea.
View Wikipedia Record: Belone belone

Attributes

Migration [1]  Oceanodromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Aegean Drainages Greece Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Lizard Point 34565 England, United Kingdom    
Miramare Marine Park Biosphere Reserve 717 Italy  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Ruegen   Germany      
The Lizard 8048 England, United Kingdom    
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Acartia clausi[2]
Anomalocera patersoni[2]
Belone belone (Garfish)[2]
Calanus helgolandicus[2]
Cancer pagurus (Rock crab)[2]
Centropages typicus[2]
Clausocalanus arcuicornis[3]
Corycaeus anglicus[2]
Ectinosoma normani[2]
Eurydice pulchra (gewone pissebed)[2]
Gammarellus angulosus[2]
Gammarus locusta[2]
Harpacticus uniremis[2]
Labidocera wollastoni[3]
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)[2]
Nannocalanus minor[3]
Parathemisto oblivia[2]
Podon intermedius[2]
Porcellana longicornis (long-clawed porcelain crab)[2]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[2]
Temora longicornis[2]
Temora stylifera[3]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)1

Predators

Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)[2]
Belone belone (Garfish)[2]
Calonectris diomedea (Cory's Shearwater)[2]
Calonectris leucomelas (Streaked Shearwater)[2]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[2]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[2]
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)[4]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[5]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[2]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[2]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[2]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[2]
Huso huso (Beluga)[2]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[2]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[2]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[2]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[2]
Leucocarbo chalconotus (bronze shag)[2]
Leucocarbo onslowi (Chatham Islands shag)[2]
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi (Bounty Islands shag)[2]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[2]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[2]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[2]
Onychoprion anaethetus (Bridled Tern)[2]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[2]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[2]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[2]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[2]
Phaethon lepturus (White-tailed Tropicbird)[2]
Phalacrocorax featherstoni (Pitt Island shag)[2]
Phalacrocorax fuscescens (Black-faced Cormorant)[2]
Phalacrocorax harrisi (Flightless Cormorant)[2]
Phalacrocorax punctatus (spotted shag)[2]
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris (Little Black Cormorant)[2]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[2]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[2]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[2]
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)[2]
Raja clavata (Roker)[6]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[2]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[2]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[2]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[2]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[2]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[2]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[2]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[2]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[2]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[2]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[2]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[2]
Tetrapturus belone (Mediterranean shortbill spearfish)[2]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[2]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[2]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[2]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[7]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[2]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[2]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[2]
Cryptocotyle lingua[2]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis pegreffii <Unverified Name>[8]
Anisakis simplex[8]
Aponurus laguncula[8]
Ascaris belonesvulgaris <Unverified Name>[8]
Aspinatrium gallieni[8]
Axine belones[8]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[8]
Brachyphallus crenatus[8]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[8]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[2]
Cryptocotyle lingua[2]
Diclidophora bellones[8]
Echinorhynchus gadi[8]
Grillotia erinaceus[8]
Hemiurus luehei[8]
Knipowitschiatrema nicolai[8]
Lacistorhynchus tenuis[8]
Lecithaster confusus[8]
Lecithaster stellatus[8]
Lecithochirium branchialis[8]
Lecithostaphylus retroflexus[8]
Podocotyle atomon[8]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[8]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[8]
Ptychobothrium belones[8]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[8]
Rhadinorhynchus pristis[8]
Steganoderma retroflexum[8]
Taenia belones <Unverified Name>[8]
Telosentis exiguus[8]
Telosentis molini[8]
Tergestia acanthocephala[8]
Tetrochetus scombresoxis[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
London Aquarium
Universeum Science Center

Distribution

Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. Three subspecies were recognized by Collette and Parin (1970, Ref. 34977) <i>Belone belone belone</i> (Linnaeus, 1761) (Northeast Atlantic); <i>Belone belone euxini</i> Günther, 1866 (Black Sea and Sea of Azov); <i>Belone belone acus</i> Risso, 1827 (Mediterranean Sea and adjacent parts of Atlantic Ocean, Madeira, Canary Islands, Azores, and south to Cape Verde (Ref. 50279); subspecies <i>Belone belone gracilis</i> Lowe, 1839 (France to the Canary Islands including the Mediterranean) in Collette & Parin, 1990 (Ref. 5757).;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 2Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 3Sever, T. M., Bayhan, B., Bilge, G. and Taşkavak, E. (2009), "Diet composition of Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761) (Pisces: Belonidae) in the Aegean Sea". Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 25: 702–706 4DIET AND FEEDING OF DOLPHIN (CORYPHAENA HIPPURUS) IN WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, Enric Massutí, Salud Deudero, Pilar Sánchez and Beatriz Morales-Nin, BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 63(2): 329–341, 1998 5Intraspecific dietary variation in the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Bay of Biscay: importance of fat fish, Laureline Meynier, Claire Pusineri, Jérôme Spitz, M. Begoña Santos, Graham J. Pierce, Vincent Ridoux, MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Vol. 354: 277–287, 2008 6Diet comparison of four ray species (Raja clavata, Raja brachyura, Raja montagui and Leucoraja naevus) caught along the Portuguese continental shelf, Inês Farias, Ivone Figueiredo, Teresa Moura, Leonel Serrano Gordo, Ana Neves and Bárbara Serra-Pereira, Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 105–114 (2006) 7Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002 8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access