Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Merlangius > Merlangius merlangus
 

Merlangius merlangus (Whiting; Spelding; North Sea whiting; Golden cutlet; European whiting; English whiting)

Synonyms: Gadus euxinus; Gadus merlangus; Gadus merlangus euxinus; Gadus merlangus merlangus; Merlangius merlangius; Merlangius merlangus euxinus; Merlangius merlangus merlangus; Merlangus linnei; Merlangus merlangus; Merlangus merlangus euxinus; Merlangus vulgaris; Odontogadus merlangus; Odontogadus merlangus euxinus; Odontogadus merlangus merlangus
Language: Arabic; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Danish; Dutch; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hebrew; Icelandic; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Manx; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

Merlangius merlangus, commonly known as whiting, is an important food fish in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the northern Mediterranean, western Baltic, and Black Seas. In English-speaking countries outside the whiting's natural range, the name has been applied to various other species of fish.
View Wikipedia Record: Merlangius merlangus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  3.75 lbs (1.70 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [1]  2 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Margate and Long Sands 160406 England, United Kingdom
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Ecosystems

Prey / Diet

Abra alba (white furrow shell)[4]
Abra prismatica[4]
Acartia clausi[4]
Acartia longiremis[4]
Adamsia carciniopados[4]
Aequipecten opercularis (Scallop)[4]
Agonus cataphractus (Pogge)[4]
Alcyonium digitatum (Dead Man's fingers)[4]
Alloteuthis subulata (European Common Squid)[4]
Alpheus glaber (red snapping shrimp)[4]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[4]
Ampelisca diadema[4]
Ampelisca macrocephala[4]
Ampelisca spinipes[4]
Ampelisca typica[4]
Amphiura filiformis (brittlestar)[4]
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)[4]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[4]
Anomalocera patersoni[4]
Apherusa bispinosa[4]
Aphia minuta (Transparent goby)[4]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[4]
Arenicola brasiliensis[4]
Arenicola marina (arénicole)[4]
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)[4]
Argentina sphyraena (Lesser silver smelt)[4]
Arnoglossus laterna (Scald-fish)[4]
Astacilla longicornis[4]
Atylus falcatus[4]
Atylus swammerdami[4]
Bathyporeia elegans[4]
Bathyporeia guilliamsoniana[4]
Bathyporeia pelagica[4]
Belone belone (Garfish)[4]
Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet)[4]
Branchiostoma lanceolatum[4]
Buccinum undatum (common whelk)[4]
Buglossidium luteum (Yellow sole)[4]
Calanus finmarchicus[4]
Callianassa subterranea (mud shrimp)[4]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[4]
Callionymus reticulatus (Reticulated dragonet)[4]
Calocaris macandreae[4]
Cancer pagurus (Rock crab)[4]
Candacia armata[4]
Capros aper (cuckoofish)[4]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[5]
Centropages typicus[4]
Cepola macrophthalma (Red bandfish)[6]
Chama macerophylla (leafy jewelbox)[4]
Ciona intestinalis (transparent sea squirt)[4]
Cirolana parva[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[4]
Corystes cassivelaunus (masked crab)[4]
Crangon allmanni[4]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Crystallogobius linearis (Crystal goby)[4]
Dexamine spinosa[4]
Diastylis rathkei[4]
Discoconchoecia elegans[4]
Doryteuthis pleii (arrow squid)[4]
Dyopedos porrectus[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Echinocardium cordatum (Heart urchin)[4]
Echiodon drummondii (Pearlfish)[4]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[4]
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Rockling)[4]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[4]
Ensis siliqua (Sword razor)[4]
Erythrops erythrophthalma[4]
Euchone papillosa[4]
Eudorella truncatula[4]
Eurydice pulchra (gewone pissebed)[4]
Evadne nordmanni[4]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[4]
Flustra foliacea (Leafy bryozoan)[4]
Gadiculus argenteus (Silvery pout)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Galathea dispersa[4]
Galathea intermedia[4]
Gammarellus homari[4]
Gammarus locusta[4]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[4]
Gastrosaccus spinifer[7]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[4]
Gnathia maxillaris[4]
Golfingia vulgaris[4]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[4]
Goniada maculata[4]
Gymnammodytes semisquamatus (smoothed sandeel)[4]
Halicryptus spinulosus[4]
Haploops tubicola[4]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[4]
Hilbigneris gracilis[4]
Hippocampus guttulatus (Spiny seahorse)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippolyte varians[4]
Hippomedon denticulatus[4]
Hyalinoecia tubicola (bristleworm)[4]
Hyas araneus (Atlantic lyre crab)[4]
Hymenodora glacialis (Northern ambereye)[4]
Hyperia galba[4]
Hyperoche medusarum[4]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[4]
Idotea balthica (gewone zeepissebed)[4]
Idotea chelipes (brakwaterpissebed)[4]
Idotea neglecta[4]
Jassa falcata (Mottled tube-making amphipod)[8]
Lagis koreni (Köcherwurm)[4]
Leander serratus[4]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[4]
Leucon nasica[4]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Limacina retroversa (retrovert pteropod)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Liocarcinus corrugatus (wrinkled swimming crab)[4]
Liocarcinus depurator (harbour crab)[4]
Liocarcinus holsatus (flying crab)[4]
Liocarcinus pusillus (dwarf swimming crab)[4]
Lithodes maja (Norway king crab)[4]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[4]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[4]
Longipedia coronata[4]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[4]
Lumpenus lampretaeformis (serpent blenny)[4]
Lycodes vahlii (Vahl's eelpout)[4]
Macrocoeloma trispinosum (spongy decorator crab)[4]
Macropipus tuberculatus (portunid crab)[4]
Macropodia rostrata (common spider crab)[4]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[4]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[4]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[4]
Metopa alderi[4]
Metridia lucens[4]
Microdeutopus gryllotalpa[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[4]
Microstomus kitt (Sweet fluke)[4]
Mimachlamys varia (variegated scallop)[4]
Monoculodes carinatus[4]
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)[4]
Munida rugosa (Long-clawed squat lobster)[4]
Mysis mixta[4]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[4]
Myxine glutinosa (Atlantic hagfish)[4]
Natatolana borealis[4]
Necora puber (velvet crab)[4]
Neomysis integer[4]
Neotrypaea californiensis (bay ghost shrimp)[4]
Neotrypaea gigas (giant ghost shrimp)[4]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[4]
Nereis pelagica (gewone zeeduizendpoot)[4]
Nyctiphanes couchi[4]
Oikopleura dioica[4]
Oithona helgolandica[4]
Oithona similis[4]
Ophelina acuminata[4]
Ophiothrix fragilis (common brittlestar)[4]
Ophiura albida (brittlestar)[4]
Pagurus bernhardus (Bernhard's hermit crab)[4]
Pagurus prideauxi (Brown-legged hermit crab)[4]
Pagurus pubescens[4]
Palaemon serratus (common prawn)[4]
Pandalina brevirostris[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Pandalus stenolepis (roughpatch shrimp)[4]
Paracalanus parvus[4]
Parasagitta elegans (elegant arrow worm)[4]
Parathemisto oblivia[4]
Pariambus typicus[4]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[4]
Patella vulgata (Limpet)[4]
Peloscolex benedeni[4]
Pherusa plumosa (Bart-Borstenwurm)[4]
Philine scabra[4]
Philocheras gorei[4]
Pinnotheres pisum (pea crab)[4]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Pleurobrachia pileus (Sea gooseberry)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Podon intermedius[4]
Polititapes virgineus (Banded carpet shell)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)[5]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[5]
Pomatoschistus norvegicus (Norwegian goby)[4]
Pontocrates arenarius[4]
Pontophilus echinulatus[4]
Pontophilus spinosus (spiny lobster)[4]
Porcellana longicornis (long-clawed porcelain crab)[4]
Praunus flexuosus (chameleon shrimp)[4]
Praunus inermis[4]
Praunus neglectus[4]
Priapulus caudatus (Priapulus)[4]
Processa bermudensis (Bermuda night shrimp)[4]
Processa canaliculata (processa shrimp)[4]
Processa fimbriata (grass night shrimp)[4]
Processa hemphilli[4]
Processa tenuipes (thinfoot night shrimp)[4]
Processa vicina[4]
Protomedeia fasciata[4]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[4]
Pseudocalanus minutus[4]
Pseudocuma longicorne[4]
Pteroctopus tetracirrhus (fourhorn octopus)[4]
Pycnogonum littorale (Anemone sea spider)[4]
Robertsonia tenuis[4]
Rossia palpebrosa (warty bobtail squid)[4]
Sabella pavonina (slijkkokerworm)[4]
Sabinea septemcarinata (sevenline shrimp)[4]
Saccoglossus pusillus[4]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[4]
Scalibregma inflatum (T-headed worm)[4]
Schistomysis kervillei[7]
Schistomysis ornata[4]
Schistomysis spiritus[7]
Scolecithricella minor[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Sebastes viviparus (Atlantic ocean perch)[4]
Sepia officinalis (common or european cuttlefish)[4]
Sepietta oweniana (Common Bobtail)[4]
Sepiola atlantica (Atlantic Bobtail)[4]
Serpula vermicularis (Plume worm)[4]
Solea solea (True sole)[4]
Spirontocaris lilljeborgii[4]
Spirontocaris pusiola[4]
Spirontocaris spinus (parrot shrimp)[4]
Spratelloides robustus (Blue sardine)[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Syngnathus acus (longnosed pipefish)[4]
Syngnathus rostellatus (Lesser pipefish)[4]
Taphromysis louisianae[4]
Temora longicornis[4]
Terebellides pacifica[4]
Themisto compressa[4]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa longicaudata[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[4]
Tomopteris helgolandica (Plankton worm)[4]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[4]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[4]
Turritella communis[4]
Upogebia deltaura[4]
Urothoe elegans[4]
Vriesea macrostachya (parasita)[4]
Zeugopterus punctatus (Topknot)[4]
Zoarces viviparus (viviporous blenny)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)1
Bothus podas (Wide-eyed flounder)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)1
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)1
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)2
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Dicentrarchus labrax (White salmon)2
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)4
Gobius niger (Black goby)2
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Lepidorhombus boscii (Whiff)1
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)1
Mullus barbatus (red mullet)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)1
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)2
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)1
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)2
Pagellus acarne (Spanish seabream)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)2
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pomadasys incisus (Bastard grunt)1
Pomatoschistus lozanoi (Lozano's goby)1
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)2
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)3
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)1
Raja clavata (Roker)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)1
Raja undulata (Painted ray)1
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)1
Scorpaena porcus (Black scorpion fish)1
Scorpaena scrofa (Bigscale scorpionfish)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)1
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)1
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)1
Zeus faber (European john dory)1

Predators

Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)[4]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[9]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[10]
Chelidonichthys lucerna (Sapphirine gurnard)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Conger conger (Conger)[4]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[4]
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[4]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[4]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[4]
Huso huso (Beluga)[4]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[4]
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)[4]
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)[11]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[4]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[12]
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)[4]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[4]
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[13]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[4]
Molva molva (Ling)[4]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[14]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[15]
Phycis blennoides (Greater fork-beard)[4]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[4]
Raja clavata (Roker)[4]
Raja microocellata (Owl ray)[4]
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)[4]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[4]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[16]
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)[4]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[4]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[17]
Zeus faber (European john dory)[4]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Deropristis inflata[4]
Gymnophallus choledochus[4]
Parasite of 
Anisakis simplex[4]
Bucephalus marinus[4]
Contracaecum osculatum[4]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[4]
Diclidophora merlangi[4]
Gilquinia squali[4]
Grillotia erinaceus[4]
Grillotia heptanchi[4]
Gyrodactylus alviga[4]
Gyrodactylus pterygialis[4]
Hemiurus levinseni[4]
Hemiurus luehei[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[4]
Lepidapedon rachion[4]
Opechona bacillaris[4]
Podocotyle reflexa[4]
Prosorhynchoides gracilescens[4]
Stephanostomum lebourae[4]
Stephanostomum pristis[4]
Stephanostomum rhombispinosum[4]
Tormopsolus orientalis[4]
Tormopsolus osculatus[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthostomum imbutiformis <Unverified Name>[18]
Anisakis simplex[18]
Ascaris tenuissima <Unverified Name>[18]
Bucephaloides gracilescens <Unverified Name>[18]
Bucephalopsis gracilescens <Unverified Name>[18]
Bucephalus marinus[18]
Capillaria gracilis <Unverified Name>[18]
Contracaecum osculatum[18]
Cryptocotyle lingua[18]
Diclidophora merlangi[18]
Echinorhynchus gadi[18]
Gilquinia squali[18]
Grillotia erinaceus[18]
Grillotia heptanchi[18]
Gyrodactylus alviga[18]
Gyrodactylus nov <Unverified Name>[18]
Gyrodactylus pterygialis[18]
Hemiurus levinseni[18]
Hemiurus luehei[18]
Hysterothylacium rigidum <Unverified Name>[18]
Lecithaster gibbosus[18]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[18]
Lepidapedon rachion[18]
Opechona bacillaris[18]
Podocotyle reflexa[18]
Prosorhynchoides gracilescens[18]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[18]
Stephanostomum lebourae[18]
Stephanostomum pristis[18]
Stephanostomum rhombispinosum[18]
Tormopsolus orientalis[18]
Tormopsolus osculatus[18]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Albania; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Croatia; Denmark; England and Wales (UK); Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Italy; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Netherlands; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: southeastern Barents Sea and Iceland to Portugal, also in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea, Adriatic Sea and adjacent areas. Rare in the northwestern Mediterranean.; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Sea of Marmara; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004 6Abundance-depth relationship, condition factor and adaptive value of zooplanktophagy for red bandfish, Cepola macrophthalma, K. I. Stergiou, Journal of Fish Biology (1993) 42, 645-660 7The mysid-feeding guild of demersal fishes in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde estuary, K. Hostens and J. Mees, Journal of Fish Biology (1999) 55, 704-719 8The diet of demersal and semi-pelagic fish in the Thorntonbank wind farm: tracing changes using stomach analyses data, J. Derweduwen, S. Vandendriessche, T. Willems & K. Hostens, Offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea, Degraer, S., Brabant, R. & Rumes, B., (Eds.) (2012). Offshore wind farms in the Belgian part of the North Sea: Heading for an understanding of environmental impacts. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Management Unit of the North Sea Mathematical Models, Marine ecosystem management unit. 155 pp. + annexes. 9Distribution and feeding ecology of Raja radiata in the northeastern North Sea and Skagerrak (Norwegian Deep), J. E. Skjæraasen, and O. A. Bergstad, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 1249–1260. 2000 10Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002, G.J. Pierce, M.B. Santos, R.J. Reid, I.A.P. Patterson and H.M. Ross, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. (2004), 84, 1241-1244 11Seasonal distribution of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) in UK waters with new information on diet and habitat use, Sarah J. Canning, M. Begoña Santos, Robert J. Reid, Peter G.H. Evans, Richard C. Sabin, Nick Bailey and Graham J. Pierce, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2008, 88(6), 1159–1166 12Diets of adult and chick Herring Gulls Larus argentatus argenteus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland., M. Nogales, B. Zonfrillo and P. Monaghan, SEABIRD 17: 56-63 13CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 14The harbour seal Phoca vitulina as a predator in the Skagerrak. Haerkoenen, T | Heide-Joergensen, M-P, Ophelia. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191-207 1991 15THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390 16Yick, Jonah L., Adam Barnett, and Sean R. Tracey. "The trophic ecology of two abundant mesopredators in south-east coastal waters of Tasmania, Australia." Marine Biology 159.6 (2012): 1183+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014. 17Seasonal and geographical variations in the diet of Common Guillemots Uria aalge off western Scotland, D J Halley, N. Harrison, A. Webb and D.R. Thompson, SEABIRD 17: 12-20 18Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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