Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Merlucciidae > Merluccius > Merluccius merluccius
 

Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake; Hake; European hake; Cornish salmon)

Synonyms: Gadus byrkelange; Gadus merluccius; Hidronus marlucius; Hydronus marlucius; Merluccius argentatus; Merluccius esculentus; Merluccius linnei; Merluccius smiridus; Merluccius vulgaris; Merlucius ambiguus; Merlucius esculentus; Merlucius lanatus; Merlucius sinuatus; Molva byrkelange; Onus riali; Trachinoides maroccanus; Trachinoides moroccanus
Language: Albanian; Arabic; Catalan; Croatian; Danish; Dutch; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hebrew; Icelandic; Italian; Maltese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The European hake (Merluccius merluccius) is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius. It sometimes was called the "herring hake", perhaps because it often feeds on Atlantic herring and therefore is likely to be netted along with herring.
View Wikipedia Record: Merluccius merluccius

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  18.19 lbs (8.25 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  20 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Alloteuthis media (little squid)[3]
Alpheus glaber (red snapping shrimp)[3]
Anchialina agilis[3]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[3]
Arctozenus risso (Spotted barracudina)[3]
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)[3]
Argentina sphyraena (Lesser silver smelt)[3]
Argyropelecus hemigymnus (short silver hatchetfish)[4]
Aristeus antennatus (blue and red shrimp)[3]
Arnoglossus laterna (Scald-fish)[3]
Bathynectes longipes[3]
Belone belone (Garfish)[3]
Boops boops (Bream)[4]
Branchiostoma floridae (Florida lancelet)[3]
Buglossidium luteum (Yellow sole)[3]
Calanus finmarchicus[3]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[3]
Callionymus maculatus (Spotted dragonet)[3]
Capros aper (cuckoofish)[3]
Cepola macrophthalma (Red bandfish)[5]
Chlorophthalmus agassizi (Green-eye)[3]
Chlorotocus crassicornis (green shrimp)[3]
Citharus linguatula (Spotted flounder)[3]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[3]
Conger conger (Conger)[3]
Crangon allmanni[3]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[3]
Crystallogobius linearis (Crystal goby)[3]
Cyclothone braueri (Bent - tooth lightfish)[3]
Deltentosteus quadrimaculatus (fourspotted goby)[6]
Dentex macrophthalmus (Walvis Bay reds)[3]
Echiodon dentatus (fierasfer)[3]
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Rockling)[3]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[6]
Euphausia krohni[3]
Eurydice truncata[3]
Gadiculus argenteus (Silvery pout)[3]
Gaidropsarus biscayensis (Spotted rockling)[3]
Galathea squamifera (Lobster)[3]
Gennadas elegans[3]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[3]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[3]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[3]
Leander serratus[3]
Lepidion eques (North Atlantic codling)[3]
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)[3]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[3]
Lepidotrigla cavillone (Large-scaled gurnard)[3]
Lepidotrigla dieuzeidei (Spiny gurnard)[3]
Leptometra celtica[3]
Leptomysis mediterranea[3]
Lesueurigobius friesii (fries' goby)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[3]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[3]
Lophogaster typicus[6]
Lycodes vahlii (Vahl's eelpout)[3]
Macropipus tuberculatus (portunid crab)[3]
Malacocephalus laevis (Softhead grenadier)[3]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[3]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[3]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[3]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[3]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[3]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[3]
Microchirus variegatus (Variegated sole)[3]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[4]
Munida rugosa (Long-clawed squat lobster)[3]
Munida tenuimana[3]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[3]
Nettastoma melanurum (Blackfin sorcerer)[3]
Notoscopelus elongatus (a lanternfish)[3]
Nyctiphanes couchi[3]
Pagurus prideauxi (Brown-legged hermit crab)[3]
Palaemon elegans (rockpool prawn)[3]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[3]
Paramysis helleri[3]
Parapenaeus longirostris (deep-water rose shrimp)[3]
Pasiphaea multidentata (pink glass shrimp)[3]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[3]
Phycis blennoides (Greater fork-beard)[3]
Plesionika heterocarpus (arrow shrimp)[3]
Pontophilus echinulatus[3]
Pontophilus spinosus (spiny lobster)[3]
Porania pulvillus (Red cushion star)[3]
Processa canaliculata (processa shrimp)[3]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[3]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[4]
Sardinella aurita (Alache)[3]
Schistomysis ornata[3]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[3]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[3]
Scomberomorus guttatus (Spotted tangingi)[3]
Scyllarus arctus (small european locust lobster)[3]
Scyllarus posteli[3]
Sepia officinalis (common or european cuttlefish)[3]
Sepia orbignyana (pink cuttlefish)[3]
Sepietta oweniana (Common Bobtail)[3]
Sepiola atlantica (Atlantic Bobtail)[3]
Serranus hepatus (Brown comber)[3]
Siriella clausii[3]
Solea solea (True sole)[3]
Solenocera membranacea (Atlantic mud shrimp)[6]
Spicara maena (Picarel)[3]
Spicara smaris (Picarel)[3]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[3]
Thysanopoda aequalis[3]
Trachurus picturatus (Scad)[3]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[3]
Trigla lyra (Gurnard)[3]
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)[6]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[3]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[3]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Beryx splendens (Alfonsin)1
Chelidonichthys cuculus (cockoo gurnard)1
Chelidonichthys lastoviza (Streaked gurnard)1
Chelidonichthys obscurus (Shining gurnard)1
Citharus linguatula (Spotted flounder)2
Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Saddled grenadier)1
Conger conger (Conger)1
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)3
Deania calcea (Thompsons shark)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)3
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)1
Etmopterus pusillus (Smooth lanternshark)1
Etmopterus spinax (Black centrina)2
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)1
Fistularia commersonii (Bluespotted cornetfish)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)1
Galeus melastomus (Black-mouth catshark)2
Gnathophis mystax (Thinlip conger)1
Hydrobates pelagicus (European Storm-Petrel)1
Hymenocephalus italicus (Glasshead grenadier)1
Lepidorhombus boscii (Whiff)1
Lepidotrigla cavillone (Large-scaled gurnard)2
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)4
Lycodes frigidus (Glacial eelpout)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)1
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)1
Molva dypterygia (Ling)1
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)1
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)2
Pagellus bogaraveo (Sea-bream)2
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)1
Phycis phycis (Fork-beard)1
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)2
Raja clavata (Roker)3
Raja miraletus (Brown ray)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)4
Raja polystigma (Speckled ray)2
Rajella lintea (Sharp-nosed skate)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)1
Sarda sarda (Stripe-backed pelamis)1
Saurida undosquamis (Brushtooth lizardfish)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)1
Scorpaena scrofa (Bigscale scorpionfish)1
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)1
Seriola rivoliana (Pacific amberjack)2
Serranus cabrilla (Learned rockfich)1
Serranus hepatus (Brown comber)1
Sphyraena viridensis (Yellow barracuda)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Synodus saurus (Atlantic lizardfish)4
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)1
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)1
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)1
Trigla lyra (Gurnard)1
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)2
Zeus faber (European john dory)2

Predators

Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[7]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[8]
Diplodus sargus (White seabream)[3]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[3]
Hexanchus griseus (Bluntnose six-gill shark)[9]
Illex coindetii (southern shortfin squid)[3]
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)[3]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[3]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[10]
Lophius budegassa (Blackbellied angler)[3]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[3]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[3]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[3]
Peponocephala electra (Melon-headed Whale)[3]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[3]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[3]
Raja clavata (Roker)[11]
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)[3]
Scorpaena scrofa (Bigscale scorpionfish)[3]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[3]
Seriola dumerili (Yellow tail)[4]
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)[3]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[3]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[3]
Uranoscopus scaber (Stargazer)[3]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephaloides propinquus[12]
Anisakis brevispiculata <Unverified Name>[12]
Anisakis pegreffii <Unverified Name>[12]
Anisakis physeteris <Unverified Name>[12]
Anisakis simplex[12]
Anisakis typica[12]
Anisakis ziphidarum <Unverified Name>[12]
Anthocotyle merluccii[12]
Aporocotyle spinosicanalis[12]
Aspersentis johni[12]
Bolbosoma vasculosum[12]
Bothriocephalus crassiceps <Unverified Name>[12]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[12]
Capillaria gracilis <Unverified Name>[12]
Caryophyllaeus trisignatus[12]
Clestobothrium crassiceps[12]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Cucullanus cirratus <Unverified Name>[12]
Derogenes varicus[12]
Eubothrium rugosum[12]
Grillotia erinaceus[12]
Grillotia heptanchi[12]
Hemipera magnaprostatica <Unverified Name>[12]
Hemiurus luehei[12]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[12]
Holostomum clavus <Unverified Name>[12]
Hysterothylacium clavatum <Unverified Name>[12]
Lepidapedon rachion[12]
Parahemiurus merus[12]
Prosorhynchoides gracilescens[12]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[12]
Stephanostomum cesticillum[12]
Stephanostomum solontschenki <Unverified Name>[12]
Terranova decipiens[12]
Thominx gracile <Unverified Name>[12]

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Albania; Algeria; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canary Current; Cantabrian Sea; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Eastern Atlantic: Norway and Iceland, southward to Mauritania. Also in the Mediterranean Sea and along the southern coast of the Black Sea.; Egypt; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Le Danois Bank; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Malta; Mauritania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; North Sea; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Portugal; Sea of Marmara; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002 5Abundance-depth relationship, condition factor and adaptive value of zooplanktophagy for red bandfish, Cepola macrophthalma, K. I. Stergiou, Journal of Fish Biology (1993) 42, 645-660 6Diet of the european hake Merluccius merluccius (Pisces: Merlucciidae) in the Western Mediterranean (Gulf of Lions), A. Bozzano, L. Recasens and P. Sartor, SCI. MAR. 61(1): 1-8 (1997) 7Distribution and feeding ecology of Raja radiata in the northeastern North Sea and Skagerrak (Norwegian Deep), J. E. Skjæraasen, and O. A. Bergstad, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57: 1249–1260. 2000 8Diet of common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, off the Portuguese continental coast, M.A. Silva, J. Mar. Biol. Ast. U.K. (1999), 79, 531-540 9BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK, HEXANCHUS GRISEUS (BONNATERRE, 1788), IN THE EASTERN NORTH SICILIAN WATERS, Antonio Celona, Alessandro De Maddalena, Teresa Romeo, Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 56 (2005) p. 137-151 10CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 11Diet comparison of four ray species (Raja clavata, Raja brachyura, Raja montagui and Leucoraja naevus) caught along the Portuguese continental shelf, Inês Farias, Ivone Figueiredo, Teresa Moura, Leonel Serrano Gordo, Ana Neves and Bárbara Serra-Pereira, Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 105–114 (2006) 12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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