Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cypriniformes > Cyprinidae > Ctenopharyngodon > Ctenopharyngodon idella
 

Ctenopharyngodon idella (silver orfe; White amur; Grass carp; Gardd carp)

Synonyms: Ctenopharingodon idella; Ctenopharingodon idellus; Ctenopharygodon idella; Ctenopharyngodon idellos; Ctenopharyngodon idellus; Ctenopharyngodon laticeps; Leuciscus idella; Leuciscus idellus; Leuciscus tschiliensis; Pristiodon siemionovii; Sarcocheilichthys teretiusculus
Language: Afrikaans; Albanian; Bulgarian; Cantonese; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Fijian; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Italian; Japanese; Kannada; Khmer; Kirghiz; Korean; Laotian; Latvian; Lithuanian; Malay; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Persian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Slovak; Spanish; Swedish; Tamil; Thai; Vietnamese

Wikipedia Abstract

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. It is a large cyprinid native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border. It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control.
View Wikipedia Record: Ctenopharyngodon idella

Invasive Species

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a large cyprinid introduced worldwide as a biological control of aquatic vegetation as well as a food fish. It is a voracious feeder which is incredibly efficient at removing aquatic weeds. However they can completely eliminate vegetation from water systems, resulting in widespread ecological effects. Grass carp are also known to compete with native fish, carry parasites such as Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis), and induce other harmful effects to introduced waters.
View ISSG Record: Ctenopharyngodon idella

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  54.56 lbs (24.75 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 2 months
Male Maturity [2]  4 years
Adult Length [1]  4.9 feet (150 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Pelagophils
Brood Guarder [1]  No
Diet [3]  Omnivore, Planktivore, Detritivore
Litter Size [1]  1,276,000
Maximum Longevity [1]  21 years
Migration [4]  Potamodromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Apalachicola United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central Prairie United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Colorado Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
East Texas Gulf United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Florida Peninsula United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coastal Rivers    
Gila Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Lower Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Mobile Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Ouachita Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Ozark Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Pecos United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Sabine - Galveston United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Tennessee United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Rio Grande - Bravo Mexico, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
West Florida Gulf United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Batang Ai National Park II 62638 Sarawak, Malaysia
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Ciénaga de Zapata National Park 1606900 Cuba  
Fanjingshan Nature Reserve V 86145 Guizhou, China  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
George WA Carver National Monument V 210 Missouri, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Shiga Highland Biosphere Reserve 32124 Honshu, Japan  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  

Prey / Diet

Acorus calamus (calamus)[5]
Ceratophyllum demersum (hornwort)[5]
Elodea canadensis (Canadian waterweed)[5]
Fontinalis antipyretica (antifever fontinalis moss)[5]
Hydrilla verticillata (waterthyme)[5]
Myriophyllum spicatum (myriophylle en epi)[5]
Najas indica[5]
Phragmites australis (common reed)[5]
Potamogeton lucens (long-leaf pondweed)[5]
Potamogeton natans (floatingleaf pondweed)[5]
Stuckenia pectinata (sago pondweed)[5]
Typha angustifolia (Small Reed Mace)[5]
Typha domingensis (Southern Cattail)[5]

Predators

Siniperca chuatsi (Chinese bass)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Allocreadium ctenopharyngodonis <Unverified Name>[6]
Allocreadium qinjiangensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Amurotrema dombrowskajae <Unverified Name>[6]
Apharyngostrigea cornu <Unverified Name>[6]
Aspidogaster amurensis[6]
Aspidogaster conchicola[6]
Asymphylodora japonica <Unverified Name>[6]
Bothriocephalus acheilognathi[6]
Bothriocephalus gowkongensis[6]
Bothriocephalus opsariichthydis <Unverified Name>[6]
Brentisentis cyprini <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema heterorchis <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema koreanum <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema kui <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema megapharyngus <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema pterorchis <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema schistorchis <Unverified Name>[6]
Carassotrema wui <Unverified Name>[6]
Caryophyllaeides fennica <Unverified Name>[6]
Centrocestus formosanus <Unverified Name>[6]
Centrocestus taiwanense <Unverified Name>[6]
Clonorchis sinensis (human liver fluke)[6]
Cucullanus cyprini <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonis <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus inexpectatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus lamellatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus magnihamatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus vaginulatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus vistulae <Unverified Name>[6]
Dactylogyrus yinwenyingae <Unverified Name>[6]
Digramma interrupta <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum hupehensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum macrostomum <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum niedashui <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[6]
Diplostomum rutili[6]
Diplostomum spathaceum[6]
Diplozoon bychowskyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplozoon ctenopharyngodoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplozoon paradoxum[6]
Dollfustrema vaneyi <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinochasmus fujianensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinochasmus japonicus <Unverified Name>[6]
Echinochasmus perfoliatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Eudiplozoon nipponicum <Unverified Name>[6]
Gyrodactylus ctenopharyngodontis <Unverified Name>[6]
Gyrodactylus elegans[6]
Gyrodactylus katharineri <Unverified Name>[6]
Haplorchis pumilio <Unverified Name>[6]
Haplorchis taichui <Unverified Name>[6]
Ichthyocotylurus metacercaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Khawia sinensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Ligula intestinalis[6]
Metagonimus yokogawai[6]
Neocladorchis wujiangensis <Unverified Name>[6]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[6]
Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus <Unverified Name>[6]
Orientotrema japonica <Unverified Name>[6]
Paradiplozoon marinae <Unverified Name>[6]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[6]
Posthodiplostomum cuticola[6]
Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii <Unverified Name>[6]
Pseudocapillaria tomentosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Sanguinicola magnus <Unverified Name>[6]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[6]
Sindiplozoon ctenopharyngodoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Sindiplozoon strelkowi <Unverified Name>[6]
Sinoichthyonema amuri <Unverified Name>[6]
Sinoichthyonema ctenopharyngodoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Skrjabillanus amuri <Unverified Name>[6]
Skrjabillanus schigini <Unverified Name>[6]
Squamacola parvivitellaria <Unverified Name>[6]
Tylodelphys clavata[6]
Valipora campylancristrota <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Blank Park Zoo of Des Moines
Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardens
John G. Shedd Aquarium
London Aquarium
Museum de Besancon
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Osaka Municipal Tennoji Zool. Gdns.
Ouwehand Zoo
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Sedgwick County Zoo
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Tulsa Zoo & Living Museum
Walford & North Shropshire College
Wonders of Wildlife Museum
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)
Zoo Hannover GmbH
Zoo Zürich

Distribution

Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; Algeria; America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Amur; Argentina; Arkansas; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Asia: China to eastern Siberia (Amur River system, Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic nematode <i>Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis</i> (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adv; Asia: China to eastern Siberia (Amur River system, Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm <i>Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis</i> (synonym of <i>B. acheilognathi</i>) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Asia: China to eastern Siberia (Amur River system, Ref. 1441). Widely transported around the world (Ref. 7248). Persists only in Europe by stocking (Ref. 59043). Introductions often brought with it the parasitic tapeworm <i>Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis</i> (synonym of <i>B. acheilognathi</i>) (Ref. 12217). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Athi-Galana-Sabaki River Drainage System; Australian; Azerbaijan; Balsas river; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belgium; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosten Lake; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Bulgaria; Cambodia; Canada; Caspian Sea; Cauvery; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Côte d'Ivoire; Danube; Denmark; Don; Egypt; Erqishi River; Ethiopia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Fiji Islands; Finland; France; Gaylegphug; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Guyana; Hawaii (USA); Honduras; Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Iraq; Israel; Italy; Jamaica; Japan; Kabul; Kazakhstan; Kenya; Korea, Republic of; Kuban River; Kyrgyzstan; Lake Biwa; Lake Toba; Lao People's Dem. Rep.; Latvia; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mexico; Mississippi; Missouri; Moldova, Republic of; Mongolia; Morocco; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nearctic; Neotropical; Nepal; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nigeria; Oceania - Inland waters; Oriental; Pakistan; Palearctic; Panama; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Puerto Rico; Rio Grande; Romania; Russian Federation; Rwanda; Réunion; Sakhalin Island; Serbia and Montenegro; Singapore; Slovakia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Sweden; Taiwan; Tanzania, United Rep. of; Tarim; Thailand; Tigris; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; Un. Sov. Soc. Rep.; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Volga; Yili River;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access