Animalia > Chordata > Elasmobranchii > Squaliformes > Somniosidae > Somniosus > Somniosus microcephalus
 

Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark; gurry shark; sleeper shark; Oakettle; Ground shark; Greenland shark)

Synonyms: Leiodon echinatum; Scymnus glacialis; Scymnus gunneri; Scymnus micropterus; Somniosus brevipinna; Squalus borealis; Squalus microcephalus; Squalus norvegianus
Language: Afrikaans; Danish; Dutch; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greenlandic; Icelandic; Inuktitut; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), also known as the gurry shark or grey shark, or by the Inuit name eqalussuaq, is a large shark of the family Somniosidae ("sleeper sharks") that is native to the waters of the North Atlantic Ocean around Canada, Greenland, Norway and Iceland. These sharks live farther north than any other shark species. Many of the species' adaptations are due to it being the only truly sub-Arctic species of shark.
View Wikipedia Record: Somniosus microcephalus

Attributes

Diet [1]  Carnivore
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Coastal

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Macquarie Island Nature Reserve Ia 233540 Tasmania, Australia  
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada

Prey / Diet

Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[2]
Anarhichas denticulatus (Northern wolffish)[3]
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)[3]
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)[3]
Anchoa spinifer (Spicule anchovy)[3]
Arctogadus glacialis (Polar cod)[3]
Aurelia aurita (moon jelly)[3]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[3]
Bolinopsis infundibulum (Common northern comb jelly)[3]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[3]
Brosme brosme (Tusk)[3]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[3]
Conger conger (Conger)[3]
Cottunculus microps (Polar sculpin)[3]
Cyclopterus lumpus (Lumpsucker)[3]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[2]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[2]
Euphysa flammea[3]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[3]
Gadus ogac (White sea nonmigratory cod)[3]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[2]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[3]
Leptagonus decagonus (Sea poacher)[3]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[3]
Liparis gibbus (Dusky snailfish)[3]
Liparis montagui (Montagu's sea-snail)[3]
Lycodes eudipleurostictus (Doubleline eelpout)[3]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[3]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[2]
Mertensia ovum (Sea walnut)[3]
Molva dypterygia (Ling)[3]
Molva molva (Ling)[3]
Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)[3]
Ophiopholis aculeata (daisy brittle star)[3]
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)[3]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[3]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[3]
Paraliparis bathybius (Black seasnail)[3]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[3]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[5]
Pholis gunnellus (Tissy)[3]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[3]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[3]
Pusa hispida (Ringed Seal)[2]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[2]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[3]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[3]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[2]
Sepia officinalis (common or european cuttlefish)[3]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[3]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[3]
Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Carcharodon carcharias (Maneater shark)1
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)3
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)1
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)1
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)1
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)1
Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)2
Vulpes lagopus (Arctic Fox)1

Predators

Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)[3]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[3]

Providers

Parasite of 
Ommatokoita elongata[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[6]
Squalonchocotyle borealis[6]

Distribution

North Atlantic and Arctic: Cape Cod and the Gulf of Maine, Gulf of St. Lawrence to Ellesmere Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Spitzbergen, White Sea, and Norway to the North Sea, sometimes south to the Seine River mouth, France and maybe Portugal. South Atlantic and Southern Ocean: South Africa, Kerguelen and Macquarie islands.;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2McMeans, Bailey C., et al. "The role of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) in an Arctic ecosystem: assessed via stable isotopes and fatty acids." Marine Biology 160.5 (2013): 1223+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014. 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 5Phocoena phocoena, David E. Gaskin, Peter W. Arnold, and Barbara A. Blair, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 42, pp. 1-8 (1974) 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access