Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cypriniformes > Cyprinidae > Carassius > Carassius auratus

Carassius auratus (Goldfish)

Synonyms: Carasius auratus; Carassius auratus argenteaphthalmus; Carassius auratus auratus; Carassius auratus buergeri; Carassius auratus burgeri; Carassius auratus cantonensis; Carassius auratus grandoculis; Carassius auratus wui; Carassius burgeri; Carassius carassius auratus; Carassius chinensis; Carassius coeruleus; Carassius discolor; Carassius grandoculis; Carassius pekinensis; Cyprinus auratus; Cyprinus chinensis; Cyprinus gibelioides; Cyprinus langsdorfii; Cyprinus maillardi; Cyprinus mauritianus; Cyprinus thoracatus

Wikipedia Abstract

Carassius auratus grandoculis (Japanese: nigoro-buna), a freshwater ray-finned fish, is a wild subspecies of goldfish endemic to Japan; its habitat is limited to Lake Biwa, its tributaries and distributaries, and irrigation canals. In some literature, it is misleadingly referred to as a "crucian carp," which is not strictly incorrect since this common name is popularly applied to the whole genus Carassius, in addition to being applied to the type species, C. carassius. However, the term "crucian carp" is not applied to C. auratus grandoculis, as it is a subspecies of goldfish, C. auratus.
View Wikipedia Record: Carassius auratus

Invasive Species

Native to Asia, goldfish (Carassius auratus) have been introduced worldwide due to their popularity as pond and aquarium fish. Releases, both intentional and unintentional, have meant that this species has formed wild populations in many new locations. Concerns have been raised about the impacts that goldfish have on the aquatic community, including increasing turbidity, predation upon native fish, and helping to facilitate algal blooms.
View ISSG Record: Carassius auratus


Female Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Diet [1]  Omnivore
Adult Length [2]  23 inches (59 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Phytophils
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Litter Size [2]  400,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  41 years
Migration [3]  Potamodromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Apalachicola United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central Prairie United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Colorado Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Cumberland United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Death Valley United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Florida Peninsula United States Nearctic Tropical and Subtropical Coastal Rivers    
Gila Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Hawaiian Islands United States Oceania Oceanic Islands    
Honshu - Shikoku - Kyushu Japan Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Lower Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Mobile Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Ouachita Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Ozark Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Puerto Rico - Virgin Islands United Kingdom, United States Neotropic Tropical and Subtropical Coastal Rivers    
Sabine - Galveston United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Tennessee United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Amudarya Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 152861 Lebap, Turkmenistan  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Bach Ma National Park II 54733 Viet Nam
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Codru (Kodry) Zapovednik Scientific Reserve Ia   Moldova  
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Daurskiy Biosphere Reserve 562659 Russia  
Fujian Wuyishan Nature Reserve V 206754 Fujian, China  
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Grampians National Park II 416373 Victoria, Australia
Hattah-Kulkyne NP and Murray-Kulkyne Park National Park II 122831 Victoria, Australia
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Khazar Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 658105 Turkmenistan  
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Mammoth Cave Area Biosphere Reserve (Natn'l Park) National Park II 51235 Kentucky, United States
Maolan Biosphere Reserve V 79467 Guizhou, China  
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park 20001 Tennessee, United States
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve Nature Reserve IV 1352 Portugal  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Riverland Biosphere Reserve Ia 1490891 South Australia, Australia
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
South Taupo Wetland   North Island, New Zealand      
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Studenetz 69315 Bulgaria  
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  

Prey / Diet

Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]


Anguilla australis (Shortfin eel)[5]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[4]
Butorides virescens (Green Heron)[4]
Channa argus (Spotted snakehead)[4]
Chanodichthys erythropterus (Skygazer)[4]
Ciconia boyciana (Oriental Stork)[6]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Haliaeetus leucogaster (White-bellied Sea Eagle)[7]
Hucho taimen (Taimen)[4]
Ixobrychus sinensis (Yellow Bittern)[8]
Larus delawarensis (Ring-billed Gull)[4]
Leuciscus aspius (Asp)[4]
Maccullochella peelii (Murray cod)[4]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[9]
Sander vitreus (Walleye)[4]
Silurus asotus (Far Eastern catfish)[4]
Silurus soldatovi (Northern sheatfish)[4]
Siniperca chuatsi (Chinese bass)[10]
Tachysurus fulvidraco (Banded catfish)[4]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[11]
Acanthocephalus dirus[11]
Acanthogyrus pseudoholospinus <Unverified Name>[11]
Allocreadium isoporum[11]
Allocreadium transversale <Unverified Name>[11]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[11]
Apiosoma campanulata[12]
Apophallus muehlingi[11]
Archigetes sieboldi <Unverified Name>[11]
Argulus japonicus (Japanese fishlouse)[12]
Asymphylodora japonica <Unverified Name>[11]
Asymphylodora markewitschi <Unverified Name>[11]
Asymphylodora sinensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Asymphylodora tincae[11]
Brentisentis cyprini <Unverified Name>[11]
Carassotrema koreanum[11]
Carassotrema megapharyngus <Unverified Name>[11]
Carassotrema schistorchis <Unverified Name>[11]
Caryophyllaeides fennica <Unverified Name>[11]
Caryophyllaeus brachycollis <Unverified Name>[11]
Caryophyllaeus laticeps <Unverified Name>[11]
Centrocestus armatus[11]
Centrocestus caninus[11]
Centrocestus formosanus <Unverified Name>[11]
Centrocestus taiwanense <Unverified Name>[11]
Chilodonella cyprini[12]
Clinostomum complanatum[11]
Dactylogyrus anchoratus[11]
Dactylogyrus arcuatus[11]
Dactylogyrus baueri[11]
Dactylogyrus crassus[11]
Dactylogyrus crucifer[11]
Dactylogyrus dogieli[11]
Dactylogyrus dulkeiti[11]
Dactylogyrus extensus[11]
Dactylogyrus formosus[11]
Dactylogyrus inexpectatus[11]
Dactylogyrus intermedioides[11]
Dactylogyrus intermedius[11]
Dactylogyrus magnihamatus[11]
Dactylogyrus spiralis[11]
Dactylogyrus vastator[11]
Dactylogyrus vistulae[11]
Dactylogyrus wegeneri[11]
Digramma alternans <Unverified Name>[11]
Digramma interrupta <Unverified Name>[11]
Dilepis unilateralis <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[11]
Diplostomum helveticum[11]
Diplostomum hupehensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum niedashui <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[11]
Diplostomum rutili[11]
Diplostomum spathaceum[11]
Diplozoon doi <Unverified Name>[11]
Dollfustrema vaneyi[11]
Echinochasmus fujianensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinochasmus japonicus <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinochasmus perfoliatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Eudiplozoon nipponicum <Unverified Name>[11]
Exorchis dongtinghuensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Exorchis oviformis[11]
Gnathostoma hispidum <Unverified Name>[11]
Goussia carpelli <Unverified Name>[12]
Gyrodactylus carassii[11]
Gyrodactylus elegans[11]
Gyrodactylus gurleyi[11]
Gyrodactylus japonicus[11]
Gyrodactylus kobayashii[11]
Gyrodactylus longoacuminatus[11]
Gyrodactylus medius[11]
Gyrodactylus schulmani <Unverified Name>[11]
Gyrodactylus shulmani[11]
Gyrodactylus sprostonae <Unverified Name>[11]
Haplorchis pumilio[11]
Haplorchis taichui[11]
Hoferellus carasii <Unverified Name>[12]
Hoferellus cyprini <Unverified Name>[12]
Ichthyobodo necator <Unverified Name>[12]
Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (freshwater white spot disease)[12]
Khawia japonensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Khawia parva <Unverified Name>[11]
Khawia rossittensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Khawia sinensis <Unverified Name>[11]
Ligula intestinalis[11]
Metagonimus takahashii[11]
Metagonimus yokogawai[11]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[11]
Neogryporhynchus cheilancristrotus <Unverified Name>[11]
Orientotrema japonica <Unverified Name>[11]
Pallisentis ussuriense[11]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus[11]
Paradilepis scolecina[11]
Paradiplozoon doi <Unverified Name>[11]
Paradiplozoon homoion[11]
Philometra abdominalis <Unverified Name>[11]
Philometra carassii <Unverified Name>[11]
Philometra sanguinea <Unverified Name>[11]
Philometroides sanguinea <Unverified Name>[11]
Phyllodistomum carassii[11]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[11]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[11]
Posthodiplostomum cuticola[11]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[11]
Pseudexorchis major <Unverified Name>[11]
Pseudocapillaria tomentosa <Unverified Name>[11]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[11]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[11]
Schyzocotyle acheilognathi[11]
Spiroxys japonica <Unverified Name>[11]
Trichodina reticulata[12]
Tylodelphys clavata[11]
Urocleidus similis <Unverified Name>[11]
Valipora campylancristrota <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Adelaide Zoo
Assiniboine Park Zoo
Bermuda Aquarium Museum and Zoo
Birmingham Nature Centre
Blackbrook Zoological Park
Boras Djurpark Zoo
Bronx Children's Zoogibelio
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Central Florida Zoological Park
Chattanooga Zoo at Warner Parkgibelio
Chicago Zoological Park
Cotswold Wildlife Park and Gardensauratus
Dallas Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
Dierenpark 'De Vleut' (Zoo Best)gibelio
Dierenpark Emmen
DSI Givskud Zoogibelio
Dudley Zoological Gardensauratus
El Paso Zoo
Elmwood Park Zoogibelio
Erie Zoological Gardens
Florida Aquarium
Hattiesburg Zoo
Indianapolis Zoo
Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens
Jardim Zoologico / Lisbon Zoo
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Kansas City Zoogibelio
Kyiv Zoological Parkauratus
Melbourne Zoogibelio
Miami Metrozoogibelio
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny w Lodz
Miejski Ogrod Zoologiczny Warsawauratus
Mill Mountain Zoo
Miller Park Zooauratus
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardensgibelio
Moulton College
Museum de Besancon
Museum of Science - Live Animal Center
Nagyerdei Kultúrpark KHT.
Nat'l Zoological Gardens of S. Africa
NEW Zoogibelio
Niabi Zoogibelio
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Odense Zoologiske Havegibelio
Ogrod Zoologiczny w Poznaniu
Ouwehand Zoo
Parque Zoologico Huachipa
Permskii Zoologicheskii Sad
Perth Zoological Gardens
Reaseheath College Animal Centre
Red River Zoogibelio
Reid Park Zoogibelio
Riga Zoo
Rodbaston College
San Antonio Zoological Gardens & Aquar
Santa Barbara Zoological Gardensgibelio
Shepreth Wildlife Park
Six Flags Discovery Kingdom
St. Paul's Como Zoogibelio
Tallinn Zoo
Taronga Zoogibelio
Thrigby Hall Wildlife Gardens
Thuringer Zoopark Erfurt
Toledo Zoological Gardens
Twycross Zoo
Usti nad Labem Zoo
Walford & North Shropshire College
Wellington Zoo Trustgibelio
Welsh Mountain Zooauratus
Wildlife World Zoogibelio
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC
Zoo de Fuengirola (Rain Forest SL)auratus
Zoo Dvur Kralove, a.s.
Zoo Hannover GmbHauratus
Zoo New England, Stone Zoo
Zoo Parc Overloon
Zoological Society of Trinidad &Tobago


Afghanistan; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; Albegna; America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Amudar'ya; Argentina; Asia - Inland waters; Asia: central Asia and China, and Japan (Ref. 6390). Introduced throughout the world. Asian form of the goldfish (Ref. 1739). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Australia; Australian; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Bolivia; Bosten Lake; Brazil; Canada; Caspian Sea; Chile; China; Colombia; Costa Rica; Croatia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Denmark; Erqishi River; Estonia; Ethiopia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Fiora; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greece; Han; Hawaii (USA); Hong Kong; Hungary; India; Indonesia; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kabul; Kazakhstan; Kizilirmak; Korea, Republic of; Kum; Laguna de Bay; Lake Biwa; Lao People's Dem. Rep.; Latvia; Lithuania; Macau; Madagascar; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mekong; Mexico; Mississippi; Missouri; Moldova, Republic of; Murray-Darling; Myanmar; Nakdong; Namibia; Nearctic; Neotropical; Netherlands; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Norway; Oceania - Inland waters; Ombrone; Oriental; Pakistan; Palearctic; Peng-hu Island; Peru; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Romania; Russian Federation; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Serbia and Montenegro; Seychelles; Singapore; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Sumjin; Sweden; Switzerland; Taal Lake; Taiwan; Tarim; Thailand; Tigris; Turkey; US Virgin Islands; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uruguay; Uzbekistan; Viet Nam; Volga; Yangtze; Yili River; Youngsan; Zambezi; Zimbabwe;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Relationship between turbidity and fish diets in Lakes Waahi and Whangape, New Zealand, John W. Hayes & Martin J. Rutledge, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 25:3, 297-304
6Oriental Stork, BirdLife International (2001) Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife International.
7Biology and Diet of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster Breeding in Northern Inland New South Wales, S.J.S. DEBUS, AUSTRALIAN FIELD ORNITHOLOGY 2008, 25, 165–193
8del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
9"Breeding Behaviour and Ecology of the Australian Pelican, Pelecanus conspicillatus, in New South Wales.", WJM Vestjens, Australian Wildlife Research 4(1) 37 - 58 (1977)
10Li, W., Zhang, T., Ye, S., Liu, J. and Li, Z. (2012), Feeding habits and predator-prey size relationships of mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) in a shallow lake, central China. Journal of Applied Ichthyology
11Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
12Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access