Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Salmoniformes > Salmonidae > Coregonus > Coregonus clupeaformis

Coregonus clupeaformis (Common whitefish; Lake whitefish; Whitefish; Sault whitefish; Inland whitefish; Humpback whitefish; Great Lakes whitefish; Gizzard fish; Eastern whitefish)

Synonyms: Coregonus albus; Coregonus atikameg; Coregonus clupeiformis; Coregonus labradoricus; Coregonus latior; Coregonus sapidissimus; Salmo clupeaformis; Salmo labradoricus
Language: Cree; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Inuktitut; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Other; Portuguese; Russian; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeiformis) is a species of freshwater whitefish from North America. Lake whitefish are found throughout much of Canada and parts of the northern United States, including all of the Great Lakes. The lake whitefish is sometimes referred to as a "humpback" fish due to the small size of the head in relation to the length of the body. It is a valuable commercial fish, and also occasionally taken by sport fishermen. Smoked, refrigerated, vacuum-packed lake whitefish fillets are available in North American grocery stores. Other vernacular names used for this fish include Sault whitefish, gizzard fish, common whitefish, eastern whitefish, Great Lakes whitefish, humpback whitefish, inland whitefish and whitefish. The scientific genus name Coregonus (co-regg'-on-us)
View Wikipedia Record: Coregonus clupeaformis


Adult Weight [3]  23.04 lbs (10.45 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  6 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Adult Length [2]  20 inches (50 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (rock-gravel)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Litter Size [2]  415,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  50 years
Migration [1]  Anadromous
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Bonneville United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Saskatchewan Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Audubon National Wildlife Refuge IV 14642 North Dakota, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Temperate Lakes LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Wisconsin, United States
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ukkusiksalik National Park II   Nunavut, Canada
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States


Prey / Diet

Bythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)[4]
Catostomus catostomus (Longnose sucker)[5]
Catostomus commersonii (White sucker)[5]
Daphnia galeata (waterflea)[4]
Daphnia thorata[5]
Diacyclops bicuspidatus[4]
Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel)[4]
Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)[4]
Leptodiaptomus sicilis[4]
Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee)[5]
Paramysis kessleri[5]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[5]
Sergentia coracina (chironomid)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)5
Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup)1
Bythotrephes longimanus (spiny waterflea)3
Coregonus hoyi (Bloater)5
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)5
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)1
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)1
Mergellus albellus (Smew)1
Mysis relicta (opossum shrimp)3
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)4
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)5
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)5
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)1
Sander vitreus (Walleye)4


Esox lucius (Jack)[5]
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis (Silver lamprey)[5]
Petromyzon marinus[4]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[6]
Bothrimonus sturionis[6]
Capillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[6]
Crepidostomum cooperi[6]
Crepidostomum farionis[6]
Crepidostomum metoecus[6]
Cyathocephalus truncatus[6]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[6]
Cystidicola stigmatura <Unverified Name>[6]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[6]
Dibothriocephalus dendriticus[6]
Dibothriocephalus ditremus[6]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplocotyle olrikii[6]
Diplostomum baeri[6]
Diplostomum flexicaudum[6]
Diplostomum spathaceum[6]
Discocotyle sagittata[6]
Echinorhynchus gadi[6]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[6]
Echinorhynchus leidyi[6]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[6]
Eubothrium salvelini[6]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[6]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[6]
Metabronema salvelini <Unverified Name>[6]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[6]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[6]
Neoechinorhynchus salmonis[6]
Neoechinorhynchus tumidus[6]
Petromyzon marinus (Eel sucker)[4]
Philonema agubernaculum <Unverified Name>[6]
Phyllodistomum coregoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Phyllodistomum limnosa <Unverified Name>[6]
Phyllodistomum umblae[6]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[6]
Proteocephalus coregoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Proteocephalus exiguus[6]
Proteocephalus laruei <Unverified Name>[6]
Proteocephalus neglectus <Unverified Name>[6]
Proteocephalus salmonidicola <Unverified Name>[6]
Proteocephalus singularis <Unverified Name>[6]
Proteocephalus tumidocollus <Unverified Name>[6]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[6]
Spinitectus gracilis <Unverified Name>[6]
Sterliadochona ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[6]
Tetracotyle intermedia <Unverified Name>[6]
Tetraonchus variabilis <Unverified Name>[6]
Triaenophorus crassus[6]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[6]
Truttaedacnitis truttae <Unverified Name>[6]
Tylodelphys scheuringi <Unverified Name>[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec

Range Map

North America: throughout Alaska and most of Canada south into New England, the Great Lakes basin, and central Minnesota. This species was stocked into high Andean lakes in two countries in southern Latin America (Ref. 1739). Probably conspecific with <i>Coregonus lavaretus</i> (Ref. 7506). Belongs to <i>Coregonus clupeaformis</i> complex (Ref. 27547).;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Wikimedia Commons licensed under a Creative Commons License
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access