Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Merlucciidae > Merluccius > Merluccius bilinearis
 

Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting; Silver hake; New England hake; Hake; Atlantic hake)

Synonyms: Stomodon bilinearis
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Wikipedia Abstract

The silver hake, Atlantic hake or New England hake, Merluccius bilinearis, is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. It is highly predatory and typically feeds on fish and crustaceans.
View Wikipedia Record: Merluccius bilinearis

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  2.79 lbs (1.27 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  1 year 7 months
Male Maturity [1]  1 year 7 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  12 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States

Prey / Diet

Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[4]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Ampelisca abdita[6]
Astarte arctica (Arctic astarte)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Crangon septemspinosa (sevenspine bay shrimp)[6]
Dichelopandalus leptocerus (bristled longbeak)[5]
Gammarus annulatus[4]
Gammarus lawrencianus[6]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[7]
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)[4]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[5]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[5]
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)[4]
Neomysis americana (Mysid shrimp)[6]
Peprilus triacanthus (Sheephead)[4]
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scomberesox saurus (Atlantic saury)[4]
Urophycis cirrata (Hake)[4]
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)3
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)6
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)4
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)6
Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog)1
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)1
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)3
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)1
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)1
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)3
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)1
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)1
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)3
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)4
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)2
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Northern kingfish)3
Morone americana (Wreckfish)2
Morone saxatilis (Striper bass)1
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)1
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)1
Myoxocephalus aenaeus (Little sculpin)2
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)3
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)1
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)3
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phycis chesteri (Longfin hake)1
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)2
Prionotus carolinus (Searobin)3
Prionotus evolans (Striped searobin)2
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)4
Raja eglanteria (Clearnose skate)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)2
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)6
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)5
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Syngnathus fuscus (Northern pipefish)1
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)3
Uria aalge (Common Murre)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)7
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)4
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)2

Predators

Alosa sapidissima (American shad)[5]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)[4]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[8]
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)[4]
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)[5]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[9]
Isurus oxyrinchus (Short-finned mako)[4]
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)[10]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[11]
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)[4]
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)[5]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[12]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius capensis (Cape hake)[4]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[4]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[4]
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)[4]
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[13]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[4]
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)[5]
Sebastes fasciatus (Acadian redfish)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Squatina dumeril (Atlantic angelshark)[4]
Tetronarce nobiliana (Atlantic electric ray)[5]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[14]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)[5]
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)[4]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[5]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[5]
Zoarces americanus (Ocean pout)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[15]
Anthocotyle merluccii[15]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[15]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[15]
Clestobothrium crassiceps[15]
Derogenes varicus[15]
Diclidophoroides maccallumi[15]
Grillotia erinaceus[15]
Lecithaster gibbosus[15]
Merlucciotrema praeclarum[15]
Nybelinia lingualis[15]
Podocotyle reflexa[15]
Pomphorhynchus rocci[15]
Pseudopecoelus vulgaris[15]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[15]

Distribution

Northwest Atlantic: coast of Canada and USA from Bell Isle Channel to the Bahamas; most common from southern Newfoundland to South Carolina.;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 6 Steimle FW, Pikanowski RA, McMillan DG, Zetlin CA, Wilk SJ. 2000. Demersal Fish and American Lobster Diets in the Lower Hudson - Raritan Estuary. US Dep Commer, NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 161; 106 p. 7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 8Offshore diet of grey seals Halichoerus grypus near Sable Island, Canada, W. D. Bowen, G . D. Harrison, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 112: 1-11, 1994 9Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984) 10Food habits of Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) off the coast of New England, James E. Craddock, Pamela T. Polloni, Brett Hayward, Frederick Wenzel, Fish. Bull. 107:384–394 (2009) 11Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic, W. N. Joyce, S. E. Campana, L. J. Natanson, N. E. Kohler, H. L. Pratt Jr, and C. F. Jensen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1263–1269. 2002 12Food and Ontogenetic Shifts in Feeding of the Goosefish, Lophius Americanus, Michael P. Armstrong, John A. Musick, and James A. Colvocoresses, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 18: 99–103 13THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390 14Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf, Bradford C. Chase, Fishery Bulletin 100 no2 168-80 Ap 2002 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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