Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Merlucciidae > Merluccius > Merluccius productus
 

Merluccius productus (Whiting; Pacific hake; North Pacific hake)

Synonyms: Homalopomus trowbridgii; Merlangus productus
Language: Alutiiq; Danish; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Portuguese; Russian; Salish; Spanish; Swedish; Tsimshian; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The North Pacific hake, Pacific hake, Pacific whiting, or Jack Salmon, Merluccius productus, is a merluccid hake of the genus Merluccius, found in the northeast Pacific Ocean from northern Vancouver Island to the northern part of the Gulf of California.
View Wikipedia Record: Merluccius productus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.44 lbs (655 g)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years
Maximum Longevity [2]  15 years

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Rio Colorado Biosphere Reserve VI 2320468 Sonora, Mexico  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Prey / Diet

Allosmerus elongatus (Whitebait smelt)[3]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[4]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[3]
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)[3]
Citharichthys stigmaeus (Speckled sanddab)[3]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[3]
Cymatogaster aggregata (Shiner)[3]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[6]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[5]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[5]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[5]
Glebocarcinus oregonensis (pygmy rock crab)[3]
Glyptocephalus zachirus (Witch)[3]
Icichthys lockingtoni (Brown rudderfish)[3]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[5]
Lyopsetta exilis (Slender sole)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[3]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[5]
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)[3]
Microgadus proximus (Tommy cod)[5]
Nematobrachion boopis[3]
Nyctiphanes simplex[3]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[5]
Pandalus jordani (ocean shrimp)[5]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[5]
Paraplagusia bilineata (rock sole)[3]
Parophrys vetulus (English sole)[3]
Pasiphaea pacifica (Pacific glass shrimp)[5]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[3]
Sebastes jordani (Slender rockfish)[5]
Sebastes saxicola (Stripetail rockfish)[3]
Sergestes similis[5]
Spirinchus starksi (Night smelt)[3]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[3]
Tarletonbeania crenularis (Blue lanternfish)[3]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]
Thysanoessa longipes[3]
Thysanoessa spinifera[5]
Zalembius rosaceus (Pink surfperch)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)1
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)1
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)1
Arctocephalus townsendi (Guadalupe Fur Seal)1
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)1
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)4
Caulolatilus princeps (Bighead tilefish)1
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)1
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)3
Citharichthys sordidus (Sanddab)1
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)1
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Enhydra lutris (Sea Otter)1
Eopsetta jordani (Petrale sole)1
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)2
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)1
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Genyonemus lineatus (White croaker)1
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)1
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)1
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)1
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Kogia breviceps (Pygmy Sperm Whale)1
Larus californicus (California Gull)1
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)1
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)1
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)1
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)1
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)1
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)1
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)1
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)1
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)1
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)2
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)1
Puffinus creatopus (Pink-footed Shearwater)1
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)1
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)1
Raja binoculata (Big skate)1
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)1
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)1
Sebastes crameri (Rockfish)1
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)3
Sebastes goodei (Rockfish)1
Sebastes melanops (Black bass)1
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)1
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)2
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)1
Uria aalge (Common Murre)3
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)1

Predators

Albatrossia pectoralis (Pectoral rattail)[5]
Alopias superciliosus (Whiptail)[7]
Alopias vulpinus (Zorro thresher shark)[8]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[9]
Assurger anzac (Razorback scabbardfish)[5]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Bathyraja trachura (Roughtail skate)[10]
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[4]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[11]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[12]
Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squid)[13]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[5]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[5]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[3]
Hexanchus griseus (Bluntnose six-gill shark)[3]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Kajikia audax (Stripey)[14]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[15]
Larus occidentalis (Western Gull)[4]
Lepidopus fitchi (Black scabbardfish)[5]
Lissodelphis borealis (Northern Right Whale Dolphin)[16]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[5]
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)[17]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[5]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[5]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[18]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[5]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[3]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[11]
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)[4]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[5]
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)[5]
Puffinus griseus (Sooty Shearwater)[4]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[19]
Sarda chiliensis (bonite du pacifique oriental)[4]
Sebastes entomelas (Widow rockfish)[5]
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)[5]
Sebastes pinniger (Rockfish)[5]
Sebastolobus alascanus (Channel rockcod)[3]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)[4]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[5]
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)[20]
Zalophus japonicus (Japanese Sealion)[5]
Zalophus wollebaeki (Galapagos Sea Lion)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[21]
Anthocotyle merluccii[21]
Aporocotyle margolisi[21]
Clestobothrium crassiceps[21]
Derogenes varicus[21]
Echinorhynchus gadi[21]
Lecithaster gibbosus[21]
Nybelinia surmenicola[21]
Parahemiurus merus[21]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[21]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[21]

Distribution

Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; Eastern Pacific: northern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern part of the Gulf of California. A record from the Gulf of Alaska is doubtful.; Gulf of Alaska; Mexico; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; USA (contiguous states);

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 4Trophic Role of the Pacific Whiting, Merluccius productus, P. A. LIVINGSTON and K. M. BAILEY, Marine Fisheries Review 47(2), 1985, p. 16-22 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 7FEEDING HABITS OF THE BIGEYE THRESHER SHARK (ALOPIAS SUPERCILIOSUS) SAMPLED FROM THE CALIFORNIA-BASED DRIFT GILLNET FISHERY, ANTONELLA PRETI, SUZANNE KOHIN, HEIDI DEWAR, AND DARLENE RAMON, CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 49, 2008, pp. 202-211 8FEEDING HABITS OF THE COMMON THRESHER SHARK (ALOPIAS VULPINUS) SAMPLED FROM THE CALIFORNIA-BASED DRIFT GILL NET FISHERY, 1998-1999, ANTONELLA PRETI, SUSAN E. SMITH AND DARLENE A. RAMON, CalCOFl Rep., Vol. 42, 2001 9Laidig, T. E., P. B. Adams, and W. M. Samiere. 1997. Feeding habits of sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, off the coast of Oregon and California, In M. Saunders and M. Wilkins (eds.). Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Sablefish. pp 65-79. NOAA Tech. Rep. 130. 10TROPHIC INTERACTIONS OF BATHYRAJA TRACHURA AND SYMPATRIC FISHES, Mariah Dawson Boyle, Masters Thesis, California State University Monterey Bay, 2010 11Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 12Habitat Partitioning by Three Species of Dolphins in Santa Monica Bay, California, Maddalena Bearzi, Coastal Environmental Quality Initiative, 07-08-2003 13PREDATORY INTERACTIONS AND NICHE OVERLAP BETWEEN MAKO SHARK, ISURUS OXYRINCHUS, AND JUMBO SQUID, DOSIDICUS GIGAS, IN THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT, RUSS VETTER, SUZANNE KOHIN, ANTONELLA PRETI, SAM MCCLATCHIE AND HEIDI DEWAR, CalCOFI Rep., Vol. 49, 2008 14Food habits and energy values of prey of striped marlin, Tetrapturus audax, off the coast of Mexico, Leonardo A. Abitia-Cardenas, Felipe Galvan-Magaña, Jesus Rodriguez-Romero, Fishery Bulletin 95(2). 1997, p. 360-368 15Occurrence, photo-identification and prey of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens) in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada 1984-1998, Alexandra Morton, Marine Mammal Science Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80-93. Jan 2000 16Lissodelphis borealis, Thomas A. Jefferson and Michael W. Newcomer, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 425, pp. 1-6 (1993) 17Mirounga angustirostris, Brent S. Stewart and Harriet R. Huber, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 449, pp. 1-10 (1993) 18Tinus, Craig A. (2012) Prey preference of lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a top marine predator: implications for ecosystem-based fisheries management. Fishery Bulletin, 110(2), pp. 193-204. 19Food habits of the longnose skate, Raja rhina (Jordan and Gilbert, 1880), in central California waters, Heather J. Robinson, Gregor M. Cailliet, David A. Ebert, Environ Biol Fish (2007) 80:165–179 20Seasonal and Annual Variability in the Diet of California Sea Lions Zalophus californianus at San Nicolas Island, California, 1981 -86, Mark S. Lowry, Brent S. Stewart, Carolyn B. Heath, Pamela K. Yochem, John M. Francis, Fishery Bulletin. U.S. 89:331-336 (1991) 21Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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