Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Salmoniformes > Salmonidae > Oncorhynchus > Oncorhynchus nerka
 

Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon or kokanee; Blueback; Quinalt; Red salmon; Sockeye salmon; Yank; Sock-eye salmon; Silver trout; Salmon; Redfish; Red caviar; Pygmy sockeye salmon; Pygmy salmon; Little redfish; Land-locked sockeye; Kokanee; Kickininee; Kennerly's salmon; Fraser river salmon; Blueback salmon; Blue-back; Sockeye zalm)

Synonyms: Hypsifario kennerlyi; Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi; Salmo kennerlyi; Salmo nerka; Salmo paucidens
Language: Alutiiq; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Haida; Heiltsuk; Icelandic; Italian; Japanese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Nuuchahnulth; Portuguese; Russian; Salish; Spanish; Swedish; Tsimshian

Wikipedia Abstract

Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) — also called red salmon or blueback salmon in the United States — is an anadromous species of salmon found in the Northern Pacific Ocean and rivers discharging into it. This species is a Pacific salmon that is primarily red in hue during spawning. They can grow up to 84 cm in length and weigh 2.3 to 7 kg. Juveniles remain in freshwater until they are ready to migrate to the ocean, over distances of up to 1,600 km.
View Wikipedia Record: Oncorhynchus nerka

Attributes

Adult Weight [3]  9.35 lbs (4.24 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Adult Length [2]  33 inches (84 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  Hidden
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (rock-gravel)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Litter Size [2]  4,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years
Migration [1]  Anadromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Bonneville United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Colorado Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Oregon & Northern California Coastal United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Rio Grande - Bravo Mexico, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Snake United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
McCloud River Preserve Conservation Easement 1693 California, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Shiga Highland Biosphere Reserve 32124 Honshu, Japan  
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Prey / Diet

Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[4]
Bassozetus elongatus[4]
Bosmina longirostris[4]
Clione limacina (Naked sea butterfly)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Diaphanosoma brachyurum[4]
Epischura nevadensis[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[4]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Neocalanus cristatus[4]
Neocalanus plumchrus[5]
Parathemisto japonica[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[4]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[4]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa longipes[4]
Thysanoessa spinifera[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)1
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)1
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)1
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)1
Eubalaena glacialis (Northern Right Whale)1
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)1
Lampanyctus jordani (Brokenline lanternfish)1
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (humpbacked salmon)1
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)1
Stenobrachius nannochir (Garnet lampfish)1

Predators

Alepisaurus ferox (Wolffish)[4]
Anotopterus nikparini (North Pacific daggertooth)[4]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[6]
Coregonus clupeaformis (Common whitefish)[4]
Cottus asper (Bullhead)[4]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[4]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[4]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[6]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Huso dauricus (Siberian huso sturgeon)[4]
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel catfish)[4]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[6]
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)[7]
Lampetra ayresii (Parasitic river lamprey)[4]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[4]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[4]
Lethenteron camtschaticum (Arctic lamprey)[4]
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)[4]
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)[4]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[8]
Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Ptychocheilus oregonensis (Seatrout)[4]
Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr)[4]
Salvelinus malma (dolly varden)[4]
Sander vitreus (Walleye)[4]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[9]
Acanthocephalus echigoensis[9]
Acanthocephalus opsariichthydis[9]
Anisakis simplex[9]
Baylisiella tecta[9]
Bolbosoma caenoforme[9]
Brachyphallus crenatus[9]
Camallanus oxycephalus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cardicola davisi[4]
Copiatestes filiferus[9]
Corynosoma strumosum[9]
Corynosoma villosum[9]
Crepidostomum farionis[9]
Cucullanus laevis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cyathocephalus truncatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicola stigmatura <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[9]
Derogenes varicus[9]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[9]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[9]
Diphyllobothrium latum[9]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[9]
Diplocotyle olrikii[9]
Diplostomum baeri[9]
Diplostomum spathaceum[9]
Echinorhynchus gadi[9]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[9]
Eubothrium salvelini[9]
Genolinea anura[9]
Gyrodactylus masu <Unverified Name>[9]
Gyrodactylus nerkae <Unverified Name>[9]
Hemiurus levinseni[9]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[9]
Lecithaster gibbosus[9]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[9]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[9]
Neoechinorhynchus pungitius[9]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[9]
Neoechinorhynchus saginatus[9]
Neoechinorhynchus salmonis[9]
Neoechinorhynchus tumidus[9]
Nybelinia surmenicola[9]
Paradilepis simoni <Unverified Name>[9]
Parahemiurus merus[9]
Philometra agubernaculum[4]
Philonema agubernaculum <Unverified Name>[9]
Philonema oncorhynchi <Unverified Name>[9]
Phyllobothrium caudatum[9]
Phyllodistomum conostomum[9]
Phyllodistomum umblae <Unverified Name>[9]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[9]
Proteocephalus exiguus[9]
Proteocephalus parallacticus <Unverified Name>[9]
Proteocephalus salmonidicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Rhabdochona cascadilla[9]
Rhabdochona kisutchi[9]
Rhabdochona oncorhynchi[9]
Rhadinorhynchus trachuri[9]
Salvelinema salmonicola <Unverified Name>[9]
Spinitectus gracilis <Unverified Name>[9]
Sterliadochona ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[9]
Tetracotyle intermedia <Unverified Name>[9]
Thominx catenata[9]
Triaenophorus crassus[9]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[9]
Truttaedacnitis truttae <Unverified Name>[9]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[9]

Range Map

Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; Amur; Arctic Ocean; Argentina; Asia - Inland waters; Australian; Beaufort Sea; California Current; Canada; Chukchi Sea; Denmark; Europe - Inland waters; Finland; Fraser; Great Lakes; Gulf of Alaska; India; Indian Ocean, Western; Japan; Kuril Islands; Kuroshio Current; Nearctic; New Zealand; North Pacific: northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA (Ref. 2850). Landlocked populations in Alaska, Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and Washington and Oregon in USA.; North Pacific: northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA (Ref. 2850). Landlocked populations in Alaska, Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and Washington and Oregon in USA. Import restricted in Germany (Anl. 3 BArtS; North Pacific: northern Japan to Bering Sea and to Los Angeles, California, USA (Ref. 2850). Landlocked populations in Alaska, Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, and Washington and Oregon in USA. Import restricted in Germany (Anl. 3 BArtSchV).; Oceania - Inland waters; Oyashio Current; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Palearctic; Russian Federation; Sakhalin Island; Sea of Okhotsk; Sweden; USA (contiguous states); Yukon;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5The Role of Slender Tuna, Allothunnus fallai, in the Pelagic Ecosystems of the South Pacific Ocean, Akihiko Yatsu, Japan. J. Ichthyol. 41(4): 367-377, 1995 6Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 7Predation by Salmon Sharks (Lamna ditropis) on Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean, Kazuya Nagasawa, NPAFC Bulletin No. 1 pp. 419-433 (1998) 8Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
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