Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Salmoniformes > Salmonidae > Oncorhynchus > Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon; Black salmon; Chinook; Chinook salmon; Chub salmon; King salmon; Pacific salmon; Quinnat; Quinnat salmon; Tyee; Spring salmon; Spring; Smilie; Salmon; Pickled salmon; Locks; Lox; Kippered salmon; King; Blackmouth; Chinook zalm)

Synonyms: Oncorhynchus chouicha; Oncorhynchus cooperi; Oncorhynchus tschawytscha; Oncorhynchus tshawytsha; Salmo cooperi; Salmo quinnat; Salmo richardi; Salmo richardii; Salmo tshawytscha; Salmo warreni
Language: Alutiiq; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Haida; Heiltsuk; Inuktitut; Italian; Japanese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Nuuchahnulth; Polish; Portuguese; Russian; Salish; Serbian; Spanish; Swedish; Tsimshian

Wikipedia Abstract

The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples. Other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, and Tyee salmon.
View Wikipedia Record: Oncorhynchus tshawytscha


Adult Weight [3]  74.45 lbs (33.77 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years
Male Maturity [3]  4 years
Adult Length [2]  4.9 feet (150 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  Hidden
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (rock-gravel)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [1]  Carnivore, Planktivore
Litter Size [2]  17,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  9 years
Migration [1]  Anadromous
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Arthur's Pass National Park II 257008 South Island, New Zealand
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Golden Gate National Recreation Area V 26135 California, United States
Gulf Islands National Park National Park Reserve II 8785 British Columbia, Canada
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
H.J. Andrews Biosphere Reserve 15815 Oregon, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States


Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[4]
Coregonus hoyi (Bloater)[4]
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)[4]
Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Alaska fourhorn sculpin)[4]
Neogobius melanostomus (Round goby)[4]
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)[4]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Esox lucius (Jack)1
Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)1
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)7
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)7
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)7
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)7
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)7
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)7
Sander vitreus (Walleye)7
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)1
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)1
Thymallus arcticus (Arctic grayling)1


Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[5]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[6]
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)[7]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[5]
Petromyzon marinus (Eel sucker)[4]
Ursus americanus (black bear)[8]
Ursus arctos (Grizzly Bear)[8]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[9]
Brachyphallus crenatus[9]
Capillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[9]
Crepidostomum farionis[9]
Cyathocephalus truncatus <Unverified Name>[9]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[9]
Derogenes varicus[9]
Diplostomum baeri[9]
Diplostomum spathaceum[9]
Echinorhynchus gadi[9]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[9]
Eubothrium crassum[9]
Eubothrium salvelini[9]
Genolinea anura[9]
Gilquinia squali[9]
Haplonema hamulatum <Unverified Name>[9]
Hedruris spinigera[9]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[9]
Lampritrema miescheri[9]
Lecithaster gibbosus[9]
Lecithocladium seriolellae[9]
Nanophyetus salmincola <Unverified Name>[9]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[9]
Neoechinorhynchus saginatus[9]
Neoechinorhynchus salmonis[9]
Neoechinorhynchus tumidus[9]
Nybelinia surmenicola[9]
Octomacrum lanceatum[9]
Petromyzon marinus[4]
Philonema oncorhynchi <Unverified Name>[9]
Proteocephalus parallacticus <Unverified Name>[9]
Tentacularia coryphaenae[9]
Tubulovesicula angusticauda[9]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
John Ball Zoological Garden
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Oregon Zoo

Range Map

Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Amur; Antarctica - Inland waters; Arctic Ocean; Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850) ; Arctic, Northwest to Northeast Pacific: drainages from Point Hope, Alaska to Ventura River, California, USA; occasionally strays south to San Diego in California, USA. Also in Honshu, Japan (Ref. 6793), Sea of Japan (Ref. 1998), Bering Sea (Ref. 2850) and Sea of Okhotsk (Ref. 1998). Found in Coppermine River in the Arctic. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Argentina; Asia - Inland waters; Australia; Australian; Beaufort Sea; California Current; Canada; Chile; Chukchi Sea; Europe - Inland waters; Finland; France; Fraser; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Lakes; Gulf of Alaska; Gulf of California; Hawaii (USA); Ireland; Italy; Japan; Kerguelen Islands; Kuroshio Current; Madagascar; Mexico; Nearctic; Netherlands; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Oceania - Inland waters; Pacific Central-American Coastal; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Pacific, Southwest; Palearctic; Russian Federation; Sakhalin Island; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom;



Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory 5Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 6Diving depths, diet, and underwater foraging of Rhinoceros Auklets in British Columbia, Alan E. Burger, Rory P. Wilson, Don Garnier and Marie-Pierre T. Wilson, Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol. 71: 2528-2540 (1993) 7Predation by Salmon Sharks (Lamna ditropis) on Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean, Kazuya Nagasawa, NPAFC Bulletin No. 1 pp. 419-433 (1998) 8Exploring the Denali Food Web, ParkWise, National Park Service 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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