Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Salmoniformes > Salmonidae > Salvelinus > Salvelinus fontinalis

Salvelinus fontinalis (charr; Brook charr; Brook trout; Red trout; Salmon trout; Speckled trout; Squaretail; Whitefin; Trout; Squaretailed trout; Square-tail; Specks; Speckled char; Slob; Sea trout; Salter; Native trout; Mud trout; Mountain trout; Lord-fish; Humpbacked trout; Eastern speckled trout; Eastern brook trout; Common brook trout; Coaster; Char; Brookie; Brook char; Breeder; Baiser; Aurora trout; American brook trout; American brook charr)

Synonyms: Baione fontinalis; Salmo canadensis; Salmo fontinalis; Salmo hudsonicus; Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis; Salvelinus timagamiensis
Language: Afrikaans; Alutiiq; Bulgarian; Cree; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hungarian; Icelandic; Inuktitut; Italian; Japanese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Persian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family Salmonidae. It is native to Eastern North America in the United States and Canada, but has been introduced elsewhere in North America and to other continents. In parts of its range, it is also known as the eastern brook trout, speckled trout, brook charr, squaretail, or mud trout, among others. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior is known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters. The brook trout is the state fish of nine states: Michigan, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and West Virginia, and the Provincial Fish of Nova Scotia in Canada.
View Wikipedia Record: Salvelinus fontinalis

Invasive Species

Introduced as a highly desirable fish for both angling and aquaculture throughout the world, Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) is an invasive that threatens native amphibians and fish, as well as the ecology of lakes and streams. Several native fish and amphibians face threatened or endangered status as a result of their introduction. Removal of Salvelinus fontinalis has been conducted in many places to allow for the recovery of endemic species.
View ISSG Record: Salvelinus fontinalis


Adult Weight [3]  9.69 lbs (4.40 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Adult Length [2]  34 inches (86 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  Hidden
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (rock-gravel)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Litter Size [2]  6,811
Maximum Longevity [2]  24 years
Migration [1]  Anadromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams, Coastal, Brackish Water


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Bonneville United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Colorado Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Cumberland United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Eastern Iberia Andorra, France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
English - Winnipeg Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Gila Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Gulf of Venice Drainages Italy, San Marino, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Mobile Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Oregon & Northern California Coastal United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Ozark Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Southern California Coastal - Baja California Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Tennessee United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Rio Grande - Bravo Mexico, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Saskatchewan Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Snake United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Antietam National Battlefield III 3263 Maryland, United States
Bandelier National Monument V 8107 New Mexico, United States
Banff National Park II 1690912 Alberta, Canada
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area V 36286 Montana, Wyoming, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
California Coast Ranges Biosphere Reserve 153447 California, United States  
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Catoctin Mountain Park National Park II 5994 Maryland, United States
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   North Carolina, United States
Crater Lake National Park II 180091 Oregon, United States
Devil's Postpile National Monument V 807 California, United States
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fraser Biosphere Reserve 23050 Colorado, United States  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Glacier National Park II 953799 Montana, United States
Great Basin National Park II 77367 Nevada, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kootenay National Park II 341762 British Columbia, Canada
Kosciuszko National Park II 1705480 New South Wales, Australia
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Krkonose National Park V 95995 Czech Republic  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area V 103172 Washington, United States
Lanín National Park II 536819 Neuquen, Argentina
Lassen Volcanic National Park II 29388 California, United States
Loch Maree Complex 38882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Los Alerces National Park II 463045 Chubut, Argentina  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Morristown National Historical Park VI 1677 New Jersey, United States
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Mount Rainier National Park II 235186 Washington, United States
Mount Revelstoke National Park Ia 18 British Columbia, Canada
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Puolva 2142 Sweden  
Redwood National Park II 77867 California, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Sequoia and Kings Canyon Biosphere Reserve II 172261 California, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore II 62563 Michigan, United States
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
Triglav National Park II   Slovenia
Tulach Hill and Glen Fender Meadows 3912 Scotland, United Kingdom
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Vessertal-Thuringian Forest Biosphere Reserve 42250 Germany  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Whiskey-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area V 197791 California, United States
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada
Yellowstone Biosphere Reserve II 2196863 Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, United States
Yoho National Park II 317576 British Columbia, Canada
Yosemite National Park II 95209 California, United States
Zion National Park II 135667 Utah, United States

Emblem of

New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
West Virginia

Prey / Diet

Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm)[4]
Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown bullhead)[4]
Baetis bicaudatus[4]
Callibaetis ferrugineus[4]
Cambarus bartonii (Appalachian brook crayfish)[4]
Catostomus commersonii (White sucker)[4]
Chydorus sphaericus[4]
Cottus bairdii (Beard's sculpin)[4]
Culaea inconstans (Variable stickleback)[4]
Daphnia longispina[4]
Daphnia middendorffiana[4]
Drunella coloradensis[4]
Epeorus longimanus[4]
Hesperodiaptomus shoshone[4]
Lepomis gibbosus (kiver)[4]
Leptodiaptomus signicauda[4]
Luxilus cornutus (Common shiner)[4]
Najna consiliorum[4]
Notemigonus crysoleucas (Golden shiner minnow)[4]
Notropis boucardi (Balsas shiner)[4]
Notropis heterolepis (Blacknose shiner)[4]
Oncorhynchus aguabonita (Golden trout)[4]
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)[4]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[4]
Rana muscosa (Southern Mountain Yellow-legged Frog)[4]
Rhithrogena hageni[4]
Rhyacophila brunnea[4]
Rhyacophila valuma[4]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[4]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[4]
Salvelinus fontinalis (charr)[4]
Semotilus atromaculatus (Horned dace)[4]
Stenelmis crenata[4]
Sympetrum corruptum (variegated meadowhawk)[4]
Zapada haysi (Intermountain Forestfly)[4]


Ichthyomyzon castaneus (Chestnut lamprey)[4]
Mergus merganser (Common Merganser)[4]
Oncorhynchus aguabonita (Golden trout)[4]
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)[4]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[4]
Salvelinus fontinalis (charr)[4]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[5]
Acanthocephalus echigoensis[5]
Acanthocephalus opsariichthydis[5]
Acanthocephalus tumescens[5]
Acanthostomoides apophalliformis <Unverified Name>[5]
Anisakis simplex[5]
Apophallus brevis[5]
Apophallus imperator[5]
Azygia angusticauda[5]
Azygia longa[5]
Brachyphallus crenatus[5]
Bunodera luciopercae[5]
Camallanus corderoi <Unverified Name>[5]
Camallanus tridentatus <Unverified Name>[5]
Capillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[5]
Clinostomum complanatum[5]
Crepidostomum cooperi[5]
Crepidostomum farionis[5]
Crepidostomum metoecus[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[5]
Cyathocephalus truncatus[5]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[5]
Cystidicola stigmatura <Unverified Name>[5]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[5]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[5]
Derogenes varicus[5]
Deropegus patagonicus[5]
Dibothriocephalus dendriticus[5]
Dibothriocephalus ditremus[5]
Dibothriocephalus latus[5]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplocotyle olrikii[5]
Diplostomulum metacercaria <Unverified Name>[5]
Diplostomum spathaceum[5]
Discocotyle sagittata[5]
Echinorhynchus cinctulus[4]
Echinorhynchus gadi[5]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[5]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[5]
Eubothrium crassum[5]
Eubothrium salvelini[5]
Gyrodactylus bohemicus[5]
Gyrodactylus callariatis[5]
Gyrodactylus colemanensis[5]
Gyrodactylus derjavini[5]
Gyrodactylus nerkae <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus perlucidus[5]
Gyrodactylus salaris (Salmon Fluke)[4]
Gyrodactylus salmonis[5]
Gyrodactylus teuchis <Unverified Name>[5]
Gyrodactylus truttae <Unverified Name>[5]
Hysterothylacium brachyurum <Unverified Name>[5]
Hysterothylacium patagonense <Unverified Name>[5]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[5]
Lecithaster gibbosus[5]
Ligula intestinalis[5]
Nanophyetus salmincola <Unverified Name>[5]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[5]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[5]
Neoechinorhynchus saginatus[5]
Neoechinorhynchus tumidus[5]
Nicolla wisniewskii[5]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[5]
Philometra agubernaculum[4]
Philometra cylindracea <Unverified Name>[5]
Philonema agubernaculum <Unverified Name>[5]
Philonema oncorhynchi <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllodistomum limnosa <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllodistomum superbum <Unverified Name>[5]
Phyllodistomum umblae[5]
Podocotyle angulata[5]
Podocotyle atomon[5]
Polymorphus phippsi[5]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[5]
Pomphorhynchus patagonicus[5]
Proteocephalus exiguus[5]
Proteocephalus longicollis[5]
Proteocephalus neglectus <Unverified Name>[5]
Proteocephalus parallacticus <Unverified Name>[5]
Proteocephalus tumidocollus <Unverified Name>[5]
Pseudocapillaria salvelini <Unverified Name>[5]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[5]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdochona cascadilla[5]
Rhabdochona denudata[5]
Rhabdochona oncorhynchi[5]
Rhabdochona ovifilamenta <Unverified Name>[5]
Rhabdochona paxmani <Unverified Name>[5]
Schistocephalus solidus[5]
Spinitectus gracilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Stephanostomum tenue[5]
Sterliadochona ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetracotyle intermedia <Unverified Name>[5]
Tetraonchus variabilis <Unverified Name>[5]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[5]
Truttaedacnitis truttae <Unverified Name>[5]
Zoogonus lasius[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Biodome de Montreal
Buttonwood Park Zoo
ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center
John Ball Zoological Garden
Museum de Besancon
Nashville Zoo at Grassmere
Natural History Museum of Adirondacks
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium

Range Map

Africa-Inland Waters; Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Antarctica - Inland waters; Argentina; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Australia; Australian; Austria; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Bolivia; Bulgaria; Canada; Chile; Colombia; Cyprus; Czech Republic; Danube; Denmark; England and Wales (UK); Estonia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Falkland Is. (Malvinas); Finland; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Lakes; Greece; Hawaii (USA); Hudson Bay; Hungary; Iberian Coastal; India; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Italy; Japan; Kenya; Kerguelen Islands; Latvia; Lithuania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Mexico; Mississippi; Morocco; Murray-Darling; Nearctic; Neotropical; Netherlands; New Zealand; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; North America: most of eastern Canada from Newfoundland to western side of Hudson Bay; south in Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota and northern Georgia in USA. South America: Argentina (Ref. 9086). Widely introduced in te; North America: most of eastern Canada from Newfoundland to western side of Hudson Bay; south in Atlantic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins to Minnesota and northern Georgia in USA. South America: Argentina (Ref. 9086). Widely introduced in temperate regions of other continents. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Oceania - Inland waters; Oriental; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Northwest; Palearctic; Papua New Guinea; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Scotian Shelf; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovakia; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom; Venezuela; Zimbabwe;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access