Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Osmeriformes > Osmeridae > Thaleichthys > Thaleichthys pacificus
 

Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish; Eulachon; Small fish; Salvation fish; Oilfish; Fathom fish; Eurachon; smelt; Columbia River smelt; Euclachon smelt)

Synonyms: Lestidium parri; Osmerus albatrossis; Osmerus pacificus; Salmo pacificus; Thaleichthys stevensi
Language: Alutiiq; Chinook; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Haida; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Nass-Gitksan; Polish; Portuguese; Russian; Salish; Spanish; Swedish; Tsimshian

Wikipedia Abstract

The eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), also oolichan, hooligan, ooligan, or candlefish, is a small anadromous ocean fish, a smelt found along the Pacific coast of North America from northern California to Alaska.
View Wikipedia Record: Thaleichthys pacificus

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  2 years 6 months
Male Maturity [4]  2 years 6 months
Adult Length [1]  8 inches (20 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils (gravel-sand)
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [3]  Carnivore
Litter Size [1]  60,000
Maximum Longevity [1]  5 years
Migration [3]  Anadromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Farallon National Wildlife Refuge IV 352 California, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Olympic Biosphere Reserve II 922805 Washington, United States
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve Ib 2476446 Alaska, United States

Prey / Diet

Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[5]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[5]
Thysanoessa inermis[5]
Thysanoessa spinifera[5]

Predators

Acipenser transmontanus (White Sturgeon)[5]
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)[6]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[5]
Ardea herodias (Great Blue Heron)[5]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[7]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[7]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[5]
Gadus chalcogrammus (Whiting)[5]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Hypomesus pretiosus (Surf smelt)[5]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[6]
Lecithaster gibbosus[5]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[5]
Mergus merganser (Common Merganser)[6]
Mergus serrator (Red-breasted Merganser)[6]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[8]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[5]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[2]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[6]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[5]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[5]
Sebastes aleutianus (Rougheye rockfish)[5]
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[5]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[7]
Zalophus californianus (California Sealion)[6]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Lecithaster gibbosus[9]
Pronoprymna petrowi <Unverified Name>[9]

Range Map

Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; California Current; Canada; Fraser; Gulf of Alaska; Nearctic; North Pacific: west of Saint Matthew Island and Kuskokwim Bay in the Bering Sea, and Bowers Bank in the Aleutian Islands to Monterey Bay, California, USA. Populations from northern British Columbia are separate from those in the Fraser River (Ref. 10276; North Pacific: west of Saint Matthew Island and Kuskokwim Bay in the Bering Sea, and Bowers Bank in the Aleutian Islands to Monterey Bay, California, USA. Populations from northern British Columbia are separate from those in the Fraser River (Ref. 10276).; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea; Yukon;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 2Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 3Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 7Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 8Trophic Role of the Pacific Whiting, Merluccius productus, P. A. LIVINGSTON and K. M. BAILEY, Marine Fisheries Review 47(2), 1985, p. 16-22 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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