Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Theragra > Theragra chalcogramma
 

Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting; Walleyed pollock; Wall-eye pullack; Walleye pollock; Pacific pollock; Alaskan pollock; Alaska pollock; Alaska pollack)

Synonyms: Gadus chalcogrammus; Gadus minor; Gadus periscopus; Pollachius chalcogrammus; Pollachius chalcogrammus fucensis; Theracra chalcogramma; Theragra chalcogrammus; Theragra chalcogrammus chalcogrammus; Theragra fucensis
Language: Alutiiq; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Italian; Japanese; Korean; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Russian; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The Alaska pollock or walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus, formerly Theragra chalcogramma) is a marine fish species of the cod family Gadidae. Alaska pollock is a semipelagic schooling fish widely distributed in the North Pacific with largest concentrations found in the eastern Bering Sea.While belonging to the same family as the Atlantic pollock, the Alaska pollock is not a member of the same Pollachius genus.
View Wikipedia Record: Theragra chalcogramma

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  1.70 lbs (770 g)
Female Maturity [3]  3 years 6 months
Male Maturity [2]  3 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Maximum Longevity [3]  15 years
Nocturnal [1]  Yes
Water Biome [1]  Pelagic, Benthic, Coastal

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  

Prey / Diet

Acartia longiremis[4]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Argis lar (kuro shrimp)[4]
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)[4]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Benthalbella dentata (Pearleye)[4]
Bradyidius pacificus[4]
Calanus cristatus[4]
Calanus glacialis[4]
Calanus marshallae[4]
Calanus pacificus[4]
Candacia columbiae[4]
Caranx rhonchus (False scad)[4]
Centropages abdominalis[4]
Chauliodus macouni (Fanged viperfish)[4]
Chionoecetes bairdi (southern Tanner crab)[4]
Chionoecetes opilio (snow crab)[5]
Clione limacina (Naked sea butterfly)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Crangon alaskensis[5]
Crangon dalli (ridged crangon)[5]
Cryptacanthodes aleutensis (Red devil)[4]
Ctenodiscus crispatus (Mud star)[4]
Cyclothone atraria (Black bristlefish)[4]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[6]
Erimacrus isenbeckii (hair crab)[4]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus (Red Irish lord)[4]
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)[4]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[5]
Hippoglossoides robustus (Bering flounder)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Hypomesus pretiosus (Surf smelt)[4]
Hypsagonus quadricornis (Four-horned sea-poacher)[4]
Icelus spiniger (Thorny sculpin)[4]
Lampanyctus jordani (Brokenline lanternfish)[4]
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)[5]
Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)[4]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[4]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[4]
Lumpenopsis hypochroma (Y-prickleback)[4]
Lumpenus sagitta (Eel-blenny)[4]
Lycodes brevipes (Shortfin eelpout)[4]
Malacocottus zonurus (Bartail sculpin)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Meterythrops robusta[4]
Metridia pacifica[4]
Microstomus pacificus (Slippery sole)[4]
Neocalanus cristatus[4]
Neocalanus plumchrus[4]
Oikopleura dioica[4]
Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (humpbacked salmon)[4]
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)[4]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[4]
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)[4]
Pandalopsis dispar (sidestriped shrimp)[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Pandalus eous (Alaskan pink shrimp)[7]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[5]
Pandalus jordani (ocean shrimp)[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Paralithodes platypus (blue king crab)[4]
Parasagitta elegans (elegant arrow worm)[4]
Parathemisto japonica[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[4]
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)[4]
Podothecus accipenserinus (Sturgeon-like sea-poacher)[4]
Poroclinus rothrocki (Whitebarred blenny)[4]
Protomyctophum thompsoni (Bigeye lanternfish)[4]
Ptilichthys goodei (Quillfish)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[5]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[6]
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)[4]
Sebastes polyspinis (Rockfish)[4]
Sebastolobus alascanus (Channel rockcod)[4]
Sigmops gracilis (Slender fangjaw)[4]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[4]
Tactostoma macropus (Arrow dragonfish)[4]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[4]
Themisto pacifica[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]
Thysanoessa inermis[5]
Thysanoessa longipes[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[5]
Thysanoessa spinifera[4]
Tortanus discaudatus[4]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[4]
Zaprora silenus (Prowfish)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)2
Alcichthys elongatus3
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)2
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)2
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)4
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)4
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)3
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)3
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)2
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)3
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)2
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)3
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)5
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)9
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Gymnocanthus intermedius (Sculpin)2
Hexagrammos otakii (Greenling)2
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)4
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)4
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)7
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)3
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)3
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)3
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)2
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)2
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)2
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)2
Myoxocephalus ochotensis (Okhotsk sculpin)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)2
Physiculus japonicus (Japanese codling)2
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)3
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Raja binoculata (Big skate)2
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)6
Scomberomorus niphonius (Spotted Spanish mackerel)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)2
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2

Predators

Acanthopsetta nadeshnyi (uromegarei)[4]
Aethia cristatella (Crested Auklet)[4]
Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet)[4]
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)[4]
Albatrossia pectoralis (Pectoral rattail)[8]
Alle alle (Little Auk)[4]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[4]
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)[9]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[10]
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)[4]
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[10]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[11]
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)[4]
Bathyraja maculata (White-blotched skate)[12]
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)[4]
Berardius bairdii (Baird's Beaked Whale)[4]
Blepsias bilobus (Crested sculpin)[4]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[10]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[13]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[14]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Cleisthenes herzensteini (pointhead flounder)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)[4]
Echinorhynchus gadi[4]
Enophrys diceraus (Antlered sculpin)[4]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[4]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested Penguin)[4]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[4]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[10]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[15]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[4]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller's Sea-Eagle)[16]
Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus (Red Irish lord)[4]
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)[17]
Hemilepidotus papilio (Butterfly sculpin)[4]
Hemitripterus bolini (Bigmouth sculpin)[17]
Hemitripterus villosus (Shaggy sculpin)[6]
Hexagrammos decagrammus (Kelp greenling)[4]
Hexagrammos otakii (Greenling)[6]
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)[4]
Hippoglossoides dubius (Flathead flounder)[18]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[5]
Hippoglossoides robustus (Bering flounder)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)[19]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Hypomesus pretiosus (Surf smelt)[4]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[14]
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)[20]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[4]
Lepidopsetta bilineata (Rock sole)[4]
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)[5]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[4]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[5]
Limanda sakhalinensis (Sakhalin sole)[4]
Lycodes palearis (Wattled eelpout)[4]
Lycodes raridens (sparse-toothed lycod)[4]
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)[4]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[10]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Microstomus pacificus (Slippery sole)[4]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[4]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Myoxocephalus jaok (Plain sculpin)[4]
Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Sculpin)[21]
Nybelinia surmenicola[4]
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)[4]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[4]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[4]
Onychoprion aleuticus (Aleutian Tern)[4]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)[4]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[4]
Phoca largha (Spotted Seal)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Phoca vitulina richardii (Harbor seal)[10]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[14]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[4]
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)[4]
Physiculus japonicus (Japanese codling)[6]
Platichthys stellatus (Starry flounder)[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[22]
Pterothrissus gissu (Japanese gissu)[4]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[4]
Raja binoculata (Big skate)[4]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[5]
Rhamphocottus richardsonii (Grunt sculpin)[4]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[10]
Sebastes aleutianus (Rougheye rockfish)[4]
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)[4]
Sebastes borealis (Black-throated rock-fish)[4]
Sebastes ciliatus (Rockfish)[4]
Sebastes polyspinis (Rockfish)[4]
Sebastolobus alascanus (Channel rockcod)[4]
Somniosus pacificus (Pacific Sleeper Shark)[23]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche eremita (Chatham Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche salvini (Salvin's Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[4]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[10]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[4]
Xema sabini (Sabine's Gull)[4]

Providers

Parasite of 
Abothrium gadi[4]
Anisakis simplex[4]
Aporocotyle simplex[4]
Aporocotyle theragrae[4]
Bolbosoma caenoforme[4]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[4]
Contracaecum osculatum[4]
Copiatestes filiferus[4]
Corynosoma strumosum[4]
Corynosoma villosum[4]
Derogenes varicus[4]
Diphyllobothrium elegans[4]
Echinorhynchus theragrae[4]
Echinorhynchus yamagutii[4]
Entobdella pugetensis[4]
Grillotia erinaceus[4]
Grillotia heptanchi[4]
Gyrodactylus marinus[4]
Hemiurus levinseni[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[4]
Lepidapedon gadi[4]
Nybelinia surmenicola[4]
Opechona alaskensis[4]
Parahemiurus merus[4]
Podocotyle reflexa[4]
Prosorhynchoides basargini[4]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[4]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[4]
Steganoderma formosum[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Abothrium gadi[24]
Amphilina coreana <Unverified Name>[24]
Anisakis simplex[24]
Aponurus sphaerolecithum <Unverified Name>[24]
Aporocotyle simplex[24]
Aporocotyle theragrae[24]
Bolbosoma caenoforme[24]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[24]
Brachyphallus crenatus[24]
Branchobdella pugetensis[24]
Contracaecum osculatum[24]
Copiatestes filiferus[24]
Corynosoma strumosum[24]
Corynosoma villosum[24]
Derogenes varicus[24]
Diphyllobothrium elegans[24]
Diphyllobothrium plerocercoid <Unverified Name>[24]
Echinorhynchus gadi[24]
Echinorhynchus leidyi[24]
Echinorhynchus theragrae[24]
Echinorhynchus yamagutii[24]
Grillotia erinaceus[24]
Grillotia heptanchi[24]
Hemiurus levinseni[24]
Lecithaster gibbosus[24]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[24]
Lepidapedon gadi[24]
Lepidapedon microcotyleum <Unverified Name>[24]
Nybelinia surmenicola[24]
Opechona alaskensis[24]
Parahemiurus merus[24]
Podocotyle reflexa[24]
Podocotyle theragrae <Unverified Name>[24]
Prosorhynchoides basargini[24]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[24]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[24]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[24]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[24]
Steganoderma formosum[24]

Distribution

Alaska (USA); Arctic Ocean; Beaufort Sea; California Current; Canada; China; Chukchi Sea; East Bering Sea; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: from Kivalina, Alaska, to the southern Sea of Japan and to Carmel, California, USA. The occurrence off the northern part of Baja California (Mexico), as reported from Quast and Hall, (1972) (Ref. 6876) is apparently erroneous.; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; Taiwan; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p. 6Diets of the demersal fishes on the shelf off Iwate, northern Japan, T. Fujita, D. Kitagawa, Y. Okuyama, Y. Ishito, T. Inada, Y. Jin, Marine Biology (1995) 123:219-233 7Food habits of Pacific cod and walleye pollock in the northern Gulf of Alaska, Daniel Urban, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 469: 215–222, 2012 8Feeding of Albatrossia pectoralis (Macrouridae) on the Continental Slope of Eastern Kamchatka and the Kurils, V. V. Napazakov and V. I. Chuchukalo, Journal of Ichthyology, 2011, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 343–351 9MS Yang, PA Livingston, Food habits and diet overlap of two congeneric species, Athersthes stomias and Atheresthes evermanni, in the eastern Bering Sea NOAA Fishery Bulletin Vol. 84 No. 3, 1986 10Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 11Diet and trophic ecology of skates in the Gulf of Alaska (Raja and Bathyraja spp.): ecological information for ecosystem–based management of demersal resources, David A. Ebert, Joseph J. Bizzarro, Simon C. Brown, Mariah D. Boyle, and Gregor M. Cailliet, NPRB Project 621 Final Report (2008) 12The Diets and Feeding Habits of Some Deep-Water Benthic Skates (Rajidae) in the Pacific Waters Off the Northern Kuril Islands and Southeastern Kamchatka, Alexei M. Orlov, Alaska Fishery Research Bulletin 5(1):1–17. 1998 13A COMPARISON OF THE BREEDING AND FEEDING ECOLOGY OF PIGEON GUILLEMOTS AT NAKED AND JACKPOT ISLANDS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, D. Lindsey Hayes, APEX: 95163 F. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK. (1996) 14Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 15HABITAT USE, DIET AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF TUFTED PUFFINS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA, John F. Piatt, Daniel D. Roby, Laird Henkel and Kriss Neuman, Northwestern Naturalist 78:102-109 (1997) 16Diet of the Steller’s Sea Eagle in the Northern Sea of Okhotsk, Irina UTEKHINA, Eugene POTAPOV & Michael J. MCGRADY, First Symposium on Steller’s and White-tailed Sea Eagles in East Asia pp. 71-82, 2000 17Life history traits of sculpins in the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, Todd T. TenBrink and Kerim Y. Aydin, NPRB Project 628 Final Report (2009) 18Effects of hypoxia on principal prey and growth of flathead flounder Hippoglossoides dubius in Funka Bay, Japan, Kimura, Masafumi; Takahashi, Toyomi; Takatsu, Tetsuya; Nakatani, Toshikuni; Maeda, Tatsuaki; Fisheries Science, 70(4): 537-545 (2004) 19Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 20Predation by Salmon Sharks (Lamna ditropis) on Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean, Kazuya Nagasawa, NPAFC Bulletin No. 1 pp. 419-433 (1998) 21Feeding Interactions and Diet of Carnivorous Fishes in the Shelikhov Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk, V. V. Napazakov, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2008, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 452–460 22The trophic role of Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius, in the Aleutian Islands area, Mei-Sun Yang, Fish. Bull. 97(4):1047-1057 (1999) 23Diet of Pacific sleeper shark, Somniosus pacificus, in the Gulf of Alaska, Mei-Sun Yang and Benjamin N. Page, Fish. Bull. 97:406–409 (1999) 24Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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