Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Reinhardtius > Reinhardtius hippoglossoides
 

Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot; Newfoundland turbot; Mock halibut; Lesser halibut; Greenland turbot; Greenland halibut; Flatty; Blue halibut; Black halibut)

Synonyms: Hippoglossus groenlandicus; Hippoglossus groenlandiensis; Pleuronectes hippoglossoides; Pleuronectes pinguis; Reinhardtius hippoglossoides matsuurae; Reinhardtius matsuurae
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Wikipedia Abstract

The Greenland halibut or Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) belongs to the Pleuronectidae family (the right eye flounders), and is the only species of the genus Reinhardtius. It is a deepwater fish distributed mostly from 200 to 1600 m, but has been caught in deeper depths of 2,200 m (7,200 ft). It is mainly found in waters with temperatures from 1-4 °C, but has also observed at sub-zero temperatures down to -2.1 °C.
View Wikipedia Record: Reinhardtius hippoglossoides

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  8.49 lbs (3.85 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  10 years 5 months
Male Maturity [1]  8 years 6 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  30 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Quttinirpaaq (Ellesmere Island) National Park Reserve II 9436606 Nunavut, Canada
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada

Prey / Diet

Albatrossia pectoralis (Pectoral rattail)[4]
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Antimora rostrata (flatnose codling)[5]
Aptocyclus ventricosus (Smooth lumpsucker)[4]
Arctogadus glacialis (Polar cod)[4]
Arctozenus risso (Spotted barracudina)[4]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[4]
Careproctus cypselurus (Snailfish)[6]
Careproctus furcellus (Emarginate snailfish)[4]
Chauliodus macouni (Fanged viperfish)[4]
Chionoecetes angulatus (triangle Tanner crab)[6]
Chionoecetes bairdi (southern Tanner crab)[6]
Chionoecetes opilio (snow crab)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[4]
Coryphaenoides cinereus (Popeye grenadier)[6]
Coryphaenoides filifer (Threadfin grenadier)[4]
Coryphaenoides rupestris (Roundnose grenadier)[5]
Cottunculus microps (Polar sculpin)[4]
Cyclothone atraria (Black bristlefish)[4]
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)[4]
Enchelyopus cimbrius (Rockling)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Gaidropsarus argentatus (Treebearded rockling)[4]
Gaidropsarus ensis (Three-beard rockling)[5]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[7]
Hemitripterus bolini (Bigmouth sculpin)[4]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[4]
Holmesiella anomala[4]
Icelus spiniger (Thorny sculpin)[4]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[5]
Lepidopsetta bilineata (Rock sole)[4]
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)[6]
Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)[4]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[6]
Leuroglossus stilbius (Southern smooth-tongue)[4]
Lycodes brevipes (Shortfin eelpout)[4]
Lycodes diapterus (Black eelpout)[4]
Lycodes palearis (Wattled eelpout)[4]
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[8]
Neocrangon communis (gray shrimp)[4]
Neognathophausia gigas[4]
Nezumia bairdii (Marlin-spike grenadier)[5]
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)[4]
Ophiura ophiura (serpent star)[4]
Pandalopsis dispar (sidestriped shrimp)[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[4]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[4]
Pandalus hypsinotus (coonstriped shrimp)[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Pasiphaea multidentata (pink glass shrimp)[4]
Pasiphaea pacifica (Pacific glass shrimp)[4]
Pasiphaea tarda (crimson pasiphaeid)[5]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[4]
Pontophilus norvegicus (Norwegian shrimp)[4]
Protomyctophum thompsoni (Bigeye lanternfish)[4]
Pseudomma truncatum[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)[4]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[4]
Sigmops gracilis (Slender fangjaw)[4]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[4]
Taonius pavo[4]
Themisto libellula[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[6]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)4
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)2
Centroscyllium fabricii (Black dogfish)2
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)2
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)2
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)5
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)2
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)2
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)2
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)5
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)2
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)2
Lycodes frigidus (Glacial eelpout)2
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)4
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)3
Molva dypterygia (Ling)2
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)2
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)2
Pollachius virens (Sillock)5
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)2

Predators

Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)[4]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[4]
Bathyraja spinicauda (Spiny-tailed skate)[5]
Brachyphallus crenatus[4]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[4]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[4]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[9]
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)[4]
Derogenes varicus[4]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[10]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[4]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)[11]
Histriophoca fasciata (Ribbon Seal)[12]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Leucocarbo chalconotus (bronze shag)[4]
Leucocarbo onslowi (Chatham Islands shag)[4]
Leucocarbo ranfurlyi (Bounty Islands shag)[4]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[4]
Lycodes vahlii (Vahl's eelpout)[4]
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)[4]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[4]
Monodon monoceros (Narwhal)[13]
Onychoprion fuscatus (Sooty Tern)[4]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[4]
Phalacrocorax capillatus (Japanese Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax featherstoni (Pitt Island shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax fuscescens (Black-faced Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax harrisi (Flightless Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax punctatus (spotted shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris (Little Black Cormorant)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[14]
Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Cassin's Auklet)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[4]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[15]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Sterna acuticauda (Black-bellied Tern)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[4]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[4]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[4]
Sula leucogaster (Brown Booby)[4]
Synthliboramphus craveri (Craveri's Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus's Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[4]
Thalasseus elegans (Elegant Tern)[4]
Thalasseus maximus (Royal Tern)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[6]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[4]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[16]
Anomalotrema koiae[16]
Aporocotyle simplex[16]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[16]
Ascarophis filiformis <Unverified Name>[16]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[16]
Brachyphallus crenatus[16]
Bucephalopsis gracilescens <Unverified Name>[16]
Contracaecum osculatum[16]
Corynosoma reductum[16]
Corynosoma semerme[16]
Corynosoma strumosum[16]
Corynosoma validum[16]
Corynosoma wegeneri[16]
Cryptocotyle lingua[16]
Derogenes varicus[16]
Dinosoma tortum[16]
Dinosoma triangulatus <Unverified Name>[16]
Dissosaccus laevis[16]
Echinorhynchus gadi[16]
Echinorhynchus laurentianus[16]
Echinorhynchus lotellae[16]
Entobdella hippoglossi[16]
Eubothrium parvum[16]
Fellodistomum furcigerum[16]
Genarchopsis mulleri <Unverified Name>[16]
Genolinea laticauda[16]
Gonocerca phycidis[16]
Grillotia erinaceus[16]
Hemiurus appendiculatus[16]
Hemiurus levinseni[16]
Lecithaster confusus[16]
Lecithaster gibbosus[16]
Lecithochirium platessae[16]
Lecithophyllum botryophorum[16]
Lecithophyllum sphaerolecithum[16]
Neoheterobothrium affine[16]
Nybelinia surmenicola[16]
Otodistomum veliporum[16]
Phocanema decipiens[16]
Phyllobothrium thridax[16]
Podocotyle angulata[16]
Podocotyle atomon[16]
Podocotyle reflexa[16]
Progonus muelleri[16]
Prosorhynchoides gracilescens[16]
Prosorhynchus squamatus[16]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[16]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[16]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[16]
Steganoderma formosum[16]
Stenakron vetustum[16]
Stephanostomum baccatum[16]
Steringophorus furciger[16]
Thynnascaris adunca[16]

Distribution

Alaska (USA); Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Barents Sea; Beaufort Sea; Canada; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; China; Chukchi Sea; Circumglobal: In arctic and temperate waters; northern hemisphere. Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Islands, and southeast to northern Baja California, Mexico. North Atlantic: New Jersey, U; Circumglobal: In arctic and temperate waters; northern hemisphere. Sea of Japan off Honshu north to Shishmaref, Alaska in the Chukchi Sea, throughout the Aleutian Islands, and southeast to northern Baja California, Mexico. North Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Spitsbergen (Svalbard Islands) and the Barents Sea south to Ireland. Northwest Atlantic: Canada (Ref. 5951).; East Bering Sea; East Greenland Shelf/Sea; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; Greenland; Gulf of Alaska; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Japan; Kuroshio Current; Mexico; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Scotian Shelf; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; Svalbard and Jan Mayen; Sweden; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom; West Bering Sea; West Greenland Shelf;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Feeding Habits of Fish Species Distributed on the Grand Bank, Concepción González1, Xabier Paz, Esther Román, and María Hermida, NAFO SCR Doc. 06/31, Serial No. N5251 (2006) 6Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p. 7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 8Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea, Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino, and Erik Olsen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483–493 9Estimated Fish Consumption by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata), in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, M. O. Hammill, C. Lydersen, K. M. Kovacs and B. Sjare, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 249–257 (1997) 10Feeding and Prey of Pacific Lamprey in Coastal Waters of the Western North Pacific, Alexei Orlov, Richard Beamish, Andrei Vinnikov, Dmitry Pelenev, American Fisheries Society Symposium 69, 2009 11STOMACH CONTENTS OF LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALES (GLOBICEPHALA MELAS) STRANDED ON THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC COAST, Damon P. Gannon, Andrew J. Read, James E. Craddock, James G. Mead, MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 13(3):405-418 (July 1997) 12Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game 13Monodon monoceros, Randall R. Reeves and Sharon Tracey, Mammalian Species No. 127, pp. 1-7 (1980) 14THE DIET OF HARBOUR PORPOISE (PHOCOENA PHOCOENA) IN THE NORTHEAST ATLANTIC, M. B. SANTOS & G. J. PIERCE, Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 2003, 41, 355–390 15McMeans, Bailey C., et al. "The role of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) in an Arctic ecosystem: assessed via stable isotopes and fatty acids." Marine Biology 160.5 (2013): 1223+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014. 16Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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