Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Merlucciidae > Macruronus > Macruronus novaezelandiae
 

Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake; Whiptail; Tailed hake; Patagonian whiphake; New Zealand whiting; New Zealand whiptail; New Zealand straptail; Hoki; Grenadier; Blue hake; Blue grenadier)

Synonyms: Coryphaenoides novaezelandiae; Coryphaenoides tasmaniae; Macruronus novaezealandiae
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Wikipedia Abstract

The blue grenadier, hoki, blue hake, New Zealand whiptail, whiptail or whiptail hake, Macruronus novaezelandiae, is a merluccid hake of the family Merlucciidae found around southern Australia and New Zealand at depths of between 10 and 1,000 m (33 and 3,281 ft). It feeds in midwater on small squids, crustaceans, and fish. Its length is between 60 and 120 cm (24 and 47 in). It is a slender, silvery fish similar in appearance to the gemfish.
View Wikipedia Record: Macruronus novaezelandiae

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  1.82 lbs (825 g)
Female Maturity [2]  5 years 6 months
Male Maturity [1]  4 years 6 months
Maximum Longevity [2]  25 years

Prey / Diet

Apogonops anomalus (Flathead feed)[3]
Coelorinchus oliverianus (Oliver's rattail)[4]
Diaphus danae (Blue lantern-fish)[3]
Electrona risso (Risso's lanternfish)[5]
Epigonus denticulatus (Bigeye)[5]
Epigonus lenimen (Deepsea big-eye)[3]
Gymnoscopelus piabilis (Southern blacktip lanternfish)[6]
Haliporoides sibogae (jack-knife prawn)[5]
Hyalinoecia tubicola (bristleworm)[4]
Lampanyctodes hectoris (Lanternfish)[4]
Lampanyctus australis (Austral lanternfish)[5]
Lampichthys procerus (Lanternfish)[5]
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)[5]
Lepidorhynchus denticulatus (Deepsea whiptail)[4]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[3]
Maurolicus australis (Pennant pearlside)[4]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[3]
Notopandalus magnoculus[4]
Notophycis marginata (Dwarf codling)[5]
Oplophorus novaezeelandiae[4]
Phosichthys argenteus (Silver lighthouse fish)[4]
Pyrosoma atlanticum[5]
Rexea solandri (Southern kingfish)[3]
Scopelosaurus meadi (Blackring waryfish)[5]
Themisto gaudichaudii[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Allothunnus fallai (Tuna)1
Apogonops anomalus (Flathead feed)2
Arctocephalus forsteri (Australasian Fur Seal)1
Brama australis (Southern ray's bream)2
Brama brama (Ray's bream)2
Centriscops humerosus (Trumpet fish)1
Champsocephalus gunnari (Mackerel icefish)1
Coelorinchus aspercephalus (Rough-head whiptail)1
Cyttus traversi (horsehead)4
Deania calcea (Thompsons shark)1
Diaphus danae (Blue lantern-fish)2
Electrona antarctica (Lanternfish)1
Electrona carlsbergi (Electron subantarctic)1
Epigonus lenimen (Deepsea big-eye)1
Genypterus blacodes (Rock ling)3
Gollum attenuatus (Slender smooth-hound)1
Gymnoscopelus braueri (Lanternfish)1
Gymnoscopelus nicholsi (Nichol's lanternfish)1
Helicolenus percoides (Sea perch)3
Heptranchias perlo (Slender sevengill shark)3
Lepidorhynchus denticulatus (Deepsea whiptail)2
Merluccius australis (Whiting)2
Metelectrona herwigi (Herwig lanternfish)1
Micromesistius australis (Southern poutassou)1
Nannobrachium achirus (Lantern fish)1
Nemadactylus macropterus (Tarakihi)1
Neocyttus rhomboidalis (Deepwater dory)1
Notothenia microlepidota (Black cod)1
Oceanites oceanicus (Wilson's Storm-Petrel)1
Protomyctophum choriodon (Lanternfish)1
Thunnus albacares (Yellowfin-tuna)1
Thyrsites atun (snake mackerel)2

Predators

Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet)[5]
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)[5]
Alle alle (Little Auk)[5]
Arctocephalus forsteri (Australasian Fur Seal)[7]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[5]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[5]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[5]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[5]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[5]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[5]
Cyttus traversi (horsehead)[5]
Diomedea epomophora (Royal Albatross)[8]
Diomedea sanfordi (Northern Royal Albatross)[9]
Dipturus innominatus (Smooth skate)[10]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)[5]
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)[5]
Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested Penguin)[5]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[5]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[5]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[5]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[5]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[5]
Genypterus blacodes (Rock ling)[3]
Helicolenus percoides (Sea perch)[5]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[5]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[5]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[5]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[5]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[5]
Lepidopus caudatus (Southern frostfish)[3]
Macruronus novaezelandiae (Whiptail hake)[3]
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)[11]
Merluccius australis (Whiting)[12]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[5]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[5]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[5]
Onychoprion aleuticus (Aleutian Tern)[5]
Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)[5]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[5]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[5]
Phocarctos hookeri (New Zealand Sealion)[13]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[5]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[5]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[5]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[5]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[5]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[5]
Thalassarche bulleri (Buller's Albatross)[14]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[5]
Thalassarche eremita (Chatham Albatross)[5]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[5]
Thalassarche salvini (Salvin's Albatross)[5]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[5]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]
Xema sabini (Sabine's Gull)[5]

Providers

Parasite of 
Anisakis simplex[5]
Contracaecum aduncum[5]
Corynosoma strumosum[5]
Derogenes varicus[5]
Gonocerca phycidis[5]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[5]
Mixonybelinia beveridgei[5]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[5]
Sphyriocephalus tergestinus[5]
Tentacularia coryphaenae[5]
Tubulovesicula angusticauda[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[15]
Capillostrongyloides tasmanica <Unverified Name>[15]
Corynosoma strumosum[15]
Gonocerca phycidis[15]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[15]
Hysterothylacium tasmaniense <Unverified Name>[15]
Mixonybelinia beveridgei[15]
Myxonybelinia beveridgei <Unverified Name>[16]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[15]
Sphyriocephalus tergestinus[15]
Tentacularia coryphaenae[15]
Tubulovesicula angusticauda[15]

Distribution

Australia; East Central Australian Shelf; Great Australian Bight; Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean, Eastern; New Zealand; New Zealand Shelf; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Southwest; Southwest Australian Shelf; Southwest Pacific: New Zealand and southern Australia.; Tasman Sea; West Central Australian Shelf;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Diets of fishes of the upper continental slope of eastern Tasmania: content, calorific values, dietary overlap and trophic relationships, S.J.M. Blaber and C.M. Bulman, Marine Biology 95, 345-356 (1987) 4Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) diet variability and associated middle-depth demersal fish species depth distribution in the ecosystem on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. Amelia MacLeod Connell. Thesis submitted to the Victoria University of Wellington in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Science in Marine Biology. Victoria University of Wellington 2009 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Malcolm R. Clark (1985): The food and feeding of seven fish species from the Campbell Plateau, New Zealand, New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 19:3, 339-363 7FISH PREY SPECIES OF THE NEW ZEALAND FUR SEAL (ARCTOCEPHALUS FORSTERI, LESSON), Peter W. Carey, New Zealand Journal of Ecology (1992) 16(1): 41-46 8Southern Royal Albatross (Diomedea epomophora), Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels – www.acap.aq 9Northern Royal Albatross (Diomedea sanfordi), Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels – www.acap.aq 10J. S. Forman and M. R. Dunn, Diet and scavenging habits of the smooth skate Dipturus innominatus, Journal of Fish Biology (2012) 80, 1546–1562 11DIET OF THE YELLOW-EYED PENGUIN MEGADYPTES ANTIPODES, SOUTH ISLAND, NEW ZEALAND, 1991–1993, P.J. MOORE & M.D. WAKELIN, Marine Ornithology 25: 17–29 (1997) 12Inter-annual variability in the diets of hoki, hake, and ling on the Chatham Rise from 1990 to 2009, P. L. Horn, M. R. Dunn, New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 54 (2010) 13"Diet of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at the Auckland Islands", Simon Childerhouse, Bruce Dix and Nick Gales, Wildlife Research 28(3) 291 - 298 (2001) 14Buller’s Albatross (Thalassarche bulleri), Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels - www.acap.aq 15Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London 16Species Interactions of Australia Database, Atlas of Living Australia, Version ala-csv-2012-11-19
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