Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Pleuronectidae > Platichthys > Platichthys flesus
 

Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder; River flounder; Mud flounder; Fluke; Flounder; European flounder; Butt; Baltic flounder; White fluke)

Synonyms: Flesus vulgaris; Platessa carnaria; Platessa flesus var. marmorata; Platessa glabra; Platichthys flesus bogdanovi; Platichthys flesus flesus; Platichthys flesus italicus; Platichthys flesus luscus; Platichthys flesus trachurus; Platichthys flesus var. marmorata; Platichthys luscus; Pleuronectes bogdanovii; Pleuronectes flesoides; Pleuronectes flesus; Pleuronectes flesus caninensis; Pleuronectes flesus leiurus; Pleuronectes flesus luscus; Pleuronectes flesus septentrionalis; Pleuronectes flesus trachurus; Pleuronectes italicus; Pleuronectes luscus; Pleuronectes passer; Pleuronectes roseus
Language: Albanian; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; Gaelic, Irish; German; Greek; Icelandic; Italian; Japanese; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Manx; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The European flounder (Platichthys flesus) is a flatfish of European coastal waters from the White Sea in the north to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea in the south. It has been introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water. It is caught and used for human consumption.The European flounder is oval in shape and is usually right-eyed. It normally grows about 30 cm in length, although lengths of up to 60 cm have been recorded.
View Wikipedia Record: Platichthys flesus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  16.98 lbs (7.70 kg)
Female Maturity [1]  4 years 1 month
Male Maturity [1]  2 years 10 months
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Lithophils
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Diet [2]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Migration [2]  Diadromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Northern British Isles Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Afon Tywi/ River Tywi 898 Wales, United Kingdom
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Braunton Burrows 3328 England, United Kingdom
Burgasko ezero 7641 Bulgaria  
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Essex Estuaries 114016 England, United Kingdom
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Margate and Long Sands 160406 England, United Kingdom
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North York Moors 108930 England, United Kingdom
Ouse Washes 769 England, United Kingdom
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
River Dee 6046 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Spey 14158 Scotland, United Kingdom
River Wye/ Afon Gwy 5523 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
Saltfleetby–Theddlethorpe Dunes and Gibraltar Point 2373 England, United Kingdom  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
Stodmarsh 1395 England, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Tiree Machair 1941 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Y Twyni o Abermenai i Aberffraw/ Abermenai to Aberffraw Dunes 4623 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Abra alba (white furrow shell)[3]
Achelia echinata[3]
Alitta virens (zager)[3]
Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[3]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[3]
Aporrhais pespelecani (pelican's foot)[3]
Arctica islandica (Cyprine)[3]
Arenicola marina (arénicole)[4]
Atylus swammerdami[3]
Baltidrilus costatus[3]
Bathyporeia pelagica[3]
Bathyporeia pilosa[3]
Cancer pagurus (Rock crab)[3]
Capitella capitata (Threadworm)[3]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[4]
Cerastoderma edule (Common cockle)[3]
Chydorus sphaericus[3]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[3]
Corbula gibba (basket shell)[3]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[3]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Diastylis rathkei[3]
Donax vittatus (banded wedge-shell)[3]
Echinocardium cordatum (Heart urchin)[3]
Eteone longa (étéone)[3]
Eurydice pulchra (gewone pissebed)[3]
Eurytemora affinis[3]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[3]
Gammarellus homari[3]
Gammarus locusta[3]
Gammarus pulex[3]
Gastrosaccus spinifer[3]
Glossiphonia complanata[3]
Gnathia maxillaris[3]
Halicryptus spinulosus[3]
Harmothoe impar[3]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[3]
Idotea balthica (gewone zeepissebed)[3]
Idotea chelipes (brakwaterpissebed)[3]
Idotea emarginata[3]
Idotea linearis (smalle zeepissebed)[3]
Idotea pelagica[3]
Jaera albifrons[3]
Kurtiella bidentata[3]
Lagis koreni (Köcherwurm)[3]
Lanice conchilega (schelpkokerworm)[3]
Leander serratus[3]
Limecola balthica (Baltic macoma)[4]
Liocarcinus holsatus (flying crab)[3]
Littorina littorea (Common periwinkle)[3]
Mactra stultorum (rayed trough shell)[3]
Manayunkia aestuarina (Manjunkja)[3]
Melita palmata[3]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[3]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[3]
Modiolus modiolus (Kurile horsemussel)[3]
Mya arenaria (Clam)[3]
Mya truncata (truncate softshell)[3]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[3]
Mysidopsis angusta[3]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[3]
Neomysis integer[3]
Nucula nucleus (common nut clam)[3]
Oikopleura dioica[3]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[3]
Paracalanus parvus[3]
Parvicardium minimum[3]
Parvicardium pinnulatum[3]
Peloscolex benedeni[3]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[4]
Phaxas pellucidus (razor shell)[3]
Philine aperta (sand slug)[3]
Pholis gunnellus (Tissy)[3]
Phyllodoce mucosa[3]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[3]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[3]
Polydora hoplura[3]
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)[3]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[3]
Pontoporeia affinis[3]
Praunus flexuosus (chameleon shrimp)[3]
Pseudocalanus minutus[3]
Pygospio elegans[3]
Radix labiata[3]
Retusa obtusa (Arctic barrel-bubble)[3]
Retusa truncatula[3]
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)[3]
Sabellaria spinulosa (Ross worm)[3]
Schistomysis ornata[3]
Scrobicularia plana (Peppery furrow)[3]
Semibalanus balanoides (Barnacle)[3]
Spisula subtruncata (cut trough shell)[3]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[3]
Talitrus saltator[3]
Temora longicornis[3]
Terebellides pacifica[3]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[3]
Tubificoides benedii[3]
Upogebia deltaura[3]
Venerupis corrugata (Carpetshell)[3]
Zostera marina (Eel Grass)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)1
Bothus podas (Wide-eyed flounder)1
Calidris alpina (Dunlin)1
Calidris canutus (Red Knot)1
Carcinus maenas (green crab)2
Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Common Black-headed Gull)2
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)1
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)2
Ctenolabrus rupestris (Rock cook)1
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)1
Gadus morhua (rock cod)2
Gobius niger (Black goby)1
Haematopus ostralegus (Eurasian Oystercatcher)3
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)1
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)2
Larus canus (Mew Gull)1
Lepidorhombus boscii (Whiff)1
Limosa lapponica (Bar-tailed Godwit)2
Limosa limosa (Black-tailed Godwit)2
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)2
Mullus barbatus (red mullet)1
Mullus surmuletus (Red mullet)1
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)2
Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew)3
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)1
Pagellus acarne (Spanish seabream)1
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)1
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)3
Pluvialis apricaria (European Golden-Plover)1
Pomadasys incisus (Bastard grunt)1
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)2
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)1
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)1
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)1
Recurvirostra avosetta (Pied Avocet)1
Rhinobatos rhinobatos (Mediterranean longnose)1
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)1
Scorpaena porcus (Black scorpion fish)1
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)2
Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)2
Trisopterus capelanus (Poor cod)1

Predators

Clupea harengus (Yawling)[3]
Corynosoma strumosum[3]
Cryptocotyle lingua[3]
Derogenes varicus[3]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[3]
Esox lucius (Jack)[3]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[3]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[3]
Huso huso (Beluga)[3]
Lacunovermis macomae[3]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[3]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[3]
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)[3]
Lecithaster gibbosus[3]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[3]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[3]
Lutra lutra (European Otter)[3]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[3]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[3]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[3]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[3]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[3]
Pleurobrachia pileus (Sea gooseberry)[3]
Podocotyle staffordi[3]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[3]
Squatina dumeril (Atlantic angelshark)[3]
Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)[3]
Zoogonoides viviparus[3]

Providers

Mutual (symbiont) 
Cryptocotyle jejuna[3]
Deropristis inflata[3]
Gymnophallus choledochus[3]
Gymnophallus somateriae[3]
Himasthla continua[3]
Himasthla elongata[3]
Lacunovermis macomae[3]
Levinseniella brachysoma[3]
Maritrema oocysta[3]
Maritrema subdolum[3]
Microphallus pirum[3]
Mytilicola intestinalis[3]
Profilicollis botulus[3]
Psilochasmus oxyurus[3]
Psilostomum brevicolle[3]
Renicola roscovita[3]
Sacculina carcini[3]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[6]
Acanthocephalus lucii[6]
Acanthostomum imbutiformis <Unverified Name>[6]
Agamonema flesi <Unverified Name>[6]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[6]
Anisakis simplex[6]
Aporocotyle simplex[6]
Ascaris flesi <Unverified Name>[6]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[6]
Ascarophis pacifica <Unverified Name>[6]
Asymphylodora demeli[6]
Bothrimonus nylandicus[6]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[6]
Brachyphallus crenatus[6]
Bucephalus minimus[6]
Cainocreadium flesi[6]
Cainocreadium labracis[6]
Camallanus lacustris[6]
Capillaria gracilis <Unverified Name>[6]
Christianella minuta <Unverified Name>[6]
Contracaecum aduncum[6]
Contracaecum osculatum[6]
Corynosoma semerme[6]
Corynosoma strumosum[6]
Cosmocephalus larvae <Unverified Name>[6]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cryptocotyle concava[6]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[3]
Cryptocotyle lingua[6]
Cucullanellus minutus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cucullanus heterochrous <Unverified Name>[6]
Cucullanus minutus <Unverified Name>[6]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[6]
Derogenes varicus[6]
Dichelyne minutus <Unverified Name>[6]
Diplocotyle olrikii[6]
Diplostomum baeri[6]
Diplostomum spathaceum[6]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis[6]
Echinorhynchus gadi[6]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[6]
Eustoma rotundatum <Unverified Name>[6]
Goezia ascaroides[6]
Gyrodactylus IV <Unverified Name>[6]
Gyrodactylus alviga[3]
Gyrodactylus arcuatus[3]
Gyrodactylus flesi[6]
Gyrodactylus flexibiliradix[6]
Gyrodactylus nov <Unverified Name>[6]
Gyrodactylus robustus[3]
Gyrodactylus unicopula[6]
Helicometra fasciata[6]
Hemiurus communis[6]
Hemiurus luehei[6]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[6]
Lacunovermis macomae[6]
Lecithaster gibbosus[6]
Ligula intestinalis[6]
Macvicaria soleae[3]
Magnibursatus skrjabini[6]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[6]
Paracanthocephaloides incrassatus[6]
Paracapillaria gibsoni <Unverified Name>[6]
Phyllodistomum folium[6]
Plagioporus varius <Unverified Name>[6]
Podocotyle atomon[6]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[6]
Pomphorhynchus tereticollis[6]
Posthodiplostomum brevicaudatum[6]
Proctoeces maculatus[6]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[6]
Pygidiopsis genata[3]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[6]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[6]
Sphaerostomum bramae <Unverified Name>[6]
Steringophorus furciger[3]
Telosentis exiguus[6]
Thynnascaris adunca[6]
Timoniella imbutiforme[6]
Timoniella praeteritum[6]
Zoogonoides viviparus[6]
Zoogonus rubellus[6]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
London Aquarium
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Zoological Society of London

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Albania; Algeria; America, North - Inland waters; Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Beaufort Sea; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Canary Current; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; China; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Don; East Siberian Sea; Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia:; Eastern Atlantic: coastal and brackish waters of western Europe and from the White Sea to the Mediterranean and the Black Sea (Ref. 4705, Ref. 51442). Introduced into the USA and Canada accidentally through transport in ballast water (Ref. 1739). Asia: Iran (Ref. 39702).; Egypt; Elbe; England and Wales (UK); Estonia; Europe - Inland waters; Finland; France; Galician Shelf; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Kuban River; Laptev Sea; Latvia; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Lithuania; Loire; Malta; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Morocco; Nearctic; Netherlands; North Sea; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Palearctic; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Sea of Marmara; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tagus; Tunisia; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012). 3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 4Energy flow of a boreal intertidal ecosystem, the Sylt-Rømø Bight, Dan Baird, Harald Asmus, Ragnhild Asmus, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 279: 45–61, 2004 5Trophodynamics in a Shallow Lagoon off Northwestern Europe (Culbin Sands, Moray Firth): Spatial and Temporal Variability of Epibenthic Communities, Their Diets, and Consumption Efficiency, Vanda Mariyam Mendonça, David George Raffaelli, Peter R. Boyle, and Chas Emes, Zoological Studies 48(2): 196-214 (2009) 6Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access