Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Sardina > Sardina pilchardus
 

Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard; European sardine; Pilchard; Sardine; True sardine; Soused pilchards; Fair maid)

Synonyms: Alosa pilchardus; Arengus minor; Clupanodon sardina; Clupea harengus pilchardus; Clupea laticosta; Clupea pilchardus; Clupea pilchardus sardinia; Clupea sardina; Clupea sardinia; Sardina dobrogica; Sardina pilchardus sardina
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Wikipedia Abstract

European pilchard (Sardina pilchardus) is a species of ray-finned fish in the monotypic genus Sardina.Littoral species. Forms schools, usually at depths of 25 to 55 or even 100 m by day, rising to 10 to 35 m at night. Feeds mainly on planktonic crustaceans, also on larger organisms. Spawns in batches, in the open sea or near the coast, producing 50,000-60,000 eggs with a mean diameter of 1.5 mm.
View Wikipedia Record: Sardina pilchardus

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  15 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Acartia clausi[4]
Agetus typicus[5]
Candacia armata[5]
Centropages chierchiae[5]
Centropages typicus[4]
Euterpina acutifrons[4]
Farranula rostrata[5]
Isias clavipes[4]
Nannocalanus minor[4]
Oithona nana[4]
Oithona similis[5]
Oncaea media[4]
Oncaea mediterranea[4]
Pleuromamma gracilis[5]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[5]
Temora longicornis[5]
Temora stylifera[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)1
Aphia minuta (Transparent goby)1
Belone belone (Garfish)1
Boops boops (Bream)1
Cepola macrophthalma (Red bandfish)1
Cetorhinus maximus (Sun-fish)2
Chromis cyanea (Blue chromis)1
Chromis multilineata (Yellow-edge chromis)1
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)1
Halichoeres maculipinna (Slippery okra)1
Hygophum hygomii (Lanternfish)1
Lampanyctodes hectoris (Lanternfish)1
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)1
Membras martinica (Rough silverside)1
Menidia menidia (Tidewater silverside)1
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)2
Seriola rivoliana (Pacific amberjack)1
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)1

Predators

Alca torda (Razorbill)[5]
Alosa fallax (Twaite shad)[5]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[5]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[5]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[5]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[5]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[5]
Chelidonichthys lucerna (Sapphirine gurnard)[5]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[5]
Chlidonias leucopterus (White-winged Tern)[5]
Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)[5]
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Silver Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Red-billed Gull)[5]
Conger conger (Conger)[5]
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)[6]
Creagrus furcatus (Swallow-tailed Gull)[5]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[7]
Dicentrarchus labrax (White salmon)[5]
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)[5]
Eledone cirrhosa (Curled octopus)[5]
Eledone moschata (musky octopus)[5]
Eudyptula minor (Little Penguin)[5]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[5]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[5]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)[5]
Hexanchus griseus (Bluntnose six-gill shark)[8]
Hydrocoloeus minutus (Little Gull)[5]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[5]
Ichthyaetus audouinii (Audouin's Gull)[9]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[5]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[5]
Illex coindetii (southern shortfin squid)[10]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[5]
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)[5]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[5]
Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)[5]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[5]
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)[5]
Larus livens (Yellow-footed Gull)[5]
Larus pacificus (Pacific Gull)[5]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[5]
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)[11]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[10]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[5]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[12]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[5]
Molva molva (Ling)[5]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[5]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[5]
Mustelus mustelus (Sweet William)[5]
Oblada melanura (Saddled seabream)[5]
Octopus vulgaris (common octopus)[5]
Onychoprion anaethetus (Bridled Tern)[5]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[5]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[5]
Phaethon rubricauda (Red-tailed Tropicbird)[5]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[5]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[5]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Puffinus assimilis (Little Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus auricularis (Townsend's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus huttoni (Hutton's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus lherminieri (Audubon's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus yelkouan (Yelkouan Shearwater)[13]
Raja brachyura (Blond ray)[11]
Raja clavata (Roker)[5]
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)[11]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[5]
Sarda sarda (Stripe-backed pelamis)[12]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[12]
Scomberomorus commerson (Striped seer)[5]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[5]
Seriola dumerili (Yellow tail)[12]
Seriola rivoliana (Pacific amberjack)[14]
Serranus cabrilla (Learned rockfich)[12]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]
Stercorarius skua (Great Skua)[5]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[5]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[5]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[5]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[5]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[5]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[5]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[5]
Sternula saundersi (Saunders's Tern)[5]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[5]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[5]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[5]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[5]
Synodus saurus (Atlantic lizardfish)[15]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus craveri (Craveri's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[5]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[5]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)[5]
Thunnus alalunga (longfinned albacore)[16]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[12]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[5]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[5]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[5]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[5]
Uranoscopus scaber (Stargazer)[5]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[5]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[12]
Zeus faber (European john dory)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[17]
Ascaris engraulidis <Unverified Name>[17]
Grillotia erinaceus[17]
Hemiurus appendiculatus[17]
Hemiurus luehei[17]
Mazocraes alosae[17]
Mazocraes pilchardi[17]
Parahemiurus merus[17]
Parahemiurus sardinae <Unverified Name>[17]
Pentagramma symmetricum <Unverified Name>[17]
Pseudobacciger harengulae[17]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[17]

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; Algeria; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Belgium; Black Sea; Bulgaria; Canary Current; Canary Islands; Cantabrian Sea; Cape Verde; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Channel Islands; Denmark; Egypt; England and Wales (UK); Europe - Inland waters; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madeira Islands; Malta; Mauritania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: Iceland (rare) and North Sea, southward to Bay de Gorée, Senegal. Mediterranean (common in the western part and in Adriatic Sea, rare in the eastern part), Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.; Northern Ireland; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Scotland (UK); Sea of Marmara; Senegal; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Tagus; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Western Sahara;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4A Preliminary Study on the Feeding Regime of European Pilchard (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum 1792) in Izmir Bay, Turkey, Eastern Aegean Sea, T.M. Sever, B. Bayhan and E. Taskavak, NAGA, WorldFish Center Quarterly Vol. 28 No. 3 & 4 Jul-Dec 2005, p. 41-48
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6DIET AND FEEDING OF DOLPHIN (CORYPHAENA HIPPURUS) IN WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN WATERS, Enric Massutí, Salud Deudero, Pilar Sánchez and Beatriz Morales-Nin, BULLETIN OF MARINE SCIENCE, 63(2): 329–341, 1998
7Diet of common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, off the Portuguese continental coast, M.A. Silva, J. Mar. Biol. Ast. U.K. (1999), 79, 531-540
8BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK, HEXANCHUS GRISEUS (BONNATERRE, 1788), IN THE EASTERN NORTH SICILIAN WATERS, Antonio Celona, Alessandro De Maddalena, Teresa Romeo, Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 56 (2005) p. 137-151
9Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean, SANTI MAÑOSA, DANIEL ORO and XAVIER RUIZ, SCI. MAR., 68 (4): 605-614 (2004)
10CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
11Diet comparison of four ray species (Raja clavata, Raja brachyura, Raja montagui and Leucoraja naevus) caught along the Portuguese continental shelf, Inês Farias, Ivone Figueiredo, Teresa Moura, Leonel Serrano Gordo, Ana Neves and Bárbara Serra-Pereira, Aquat. Living Resour. 19, 105–114 (2006)
12Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002
13del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
14INTERANNUAL CHANGES IN THE DIET OF THE ALMACO JACK, SERIOLA RIVOLIANA (PERCIFORMES: CARANGIDAE) FROM THE AZORES, João Pedro Barreiros; Telmo Morato; Ricardo Serrão Santos e Alfredo Emílio de Borba, Cybium 2003, 27(1): 37-40
15Diet of Atlantic lizardfish, Synodus saurus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Synodontidae) in the central Mediterranean Sea, Valentina Esposito, Pietro Battaglia, Luca Castriota, Maria Grazia Finoia, Gianfranco Scotti and Franco Andaloro, Scientia Marina 73(2) June 2009, 369-376
16Feeding habits of the albacore tuna Thunnus alalunga (Perciformes, Scombridae) from central Mediterranean Sea, P. Consoli, T. Romeo, P. Battaglia, L. Castriota, V. Esposito, F. Andaloro, Mar Biol (2008) 155:113–120
17Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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