Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Sprattus > Sprattus sprattus
 

Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait; Sprat; Baltic sprat; Russlet; Russian sardine; Garvie; Garvock; European sprat; Brisling)

Synonyms: Clupanodon phalerica; Clupea latulus; Clupea papalina; Clupea schoneveldii; Clupea sprattus; Clupea sprattus balticus; Clupea sulinae; Meletta vulgaris; Spratella pumila; Spratella serdinka; Spratella sprattus baltica; Sprattus sprattus balticus; Sprattus sprattus phalearicus; Sprattus sprattus phalerica; Sprattus sprattus phalericus; Sprattus sprattus sprattus; Spratus spratus
Language: Albanian; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Icelandic; Italian; Latvian; Lithuanian; Maltese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The European sprat, Sprattus sprattus, also known as bristling, brisling or skipper, is a small, herring-like, marine fish. Found in European waters, it has silver grey scales and white-grey flesh. Specific seas in which the species occurs include the Irish Sea, Black Sea, Baltic Sea and Sea of the Hebrides. The fish is around 12% fat in its flesh and is a source of many vitamins.
View Wikipedia Record: Sprattus sprattus

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  2 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  6 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous
Speed [4]  0.56 MPH (.25 m/s)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Ruegen   Germany      
Saltfleetby–Theddlethorpe Dunes and Gibraltar Point 2373 England, United Kingdom  
Sefton Coast 11278 England, United Kingdom
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Acartia bifilosa[5]
Acartia clausi[5]
Acartia longiremis[5]
Acartia tonsa[5]
Aetideus armatus[5]
Calanus finmarchicus[5]
Calanus helgolandicus[5]
Candacia armata[5]
Centropages hamatus[5]
Centropages typicus[5]
Clausocalanus arcuicornis[5]
Clausocalanus furcatus[5]
Clausocalanus jobei[5]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[5]
Corycaeus anglicus[5]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Ctenocalanus vanus[5]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[5]
Engraulis ringens (Anchoveta)[5]
Eurytemora affinis[5]
Euterpina acutifrons[5]
Evadne nordmanni[5]
Gnathia maxillaris[5]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[5]
Limnocalanus grimaldii[5]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[5]
Microsetella norvegica[5]
Neomysis integer[5]
Oikopleura dioica[5]
Oithona helgolandica[5]
Oithona nana[5]
Oithona plumifera[5]
Oithona similis[5]
Oncaea media[5]
Oncaea subtilis[5]
Pagurus bernhardus (Bernhard's hermit crab)[5]
Paracalanus parvus[5]
Parapontella brevicornis[5]
Parasagitta elegans (elegant arrow worm)[5]
Parasagitta setosa[5]
Penilia avirostris[5]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[5]
Podon intermedius[5]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[5]
Solea solea (True sole)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[5]
Stenosoma capito[5]
Temora longicornis[5]
Temora stylifera[5]

Predators

Acipenser stellatus (Stellate Sturgeon)[5]
Alca torda (Razorbill)[5]
Alosa fallax (Twaite shad)[5]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[5]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[6]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[5]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[5]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[5]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[5]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[5]
Chelidonichthys lucerna (Sapphirine gurnard)[5]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[5]
Chlidonias leucopterus (White-winged Tern)[5]
Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)[5]
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Silver Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[5]
Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Red-billed Gull)[5]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Conger conger (Conger)[5]
Creagrus furcatus (Swallow-tailed Gull)[5]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[7]
Dicentrarchus labrax (White salmon)[5]
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)[5]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[5]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[5]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[5]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[5]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[5]
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)[5]
Gobius niger (Black goby)[5]
Hexanchus griseus (Bluntnose six-gill shark)[8]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[5]
Huso huso (Beluga)[5]
Hydrocoloeus minutus (Little Gull)[5]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[5]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[5]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[5]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[5]
Illex coindetii (southern shortfin squid)[5]
Lampetra fluviatilis (freshwater lamprey)[5]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[5]
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)[5]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[5]
Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)[5]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[5]
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)[5]
Larus livens (Yellow-footed Gull)[5]
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)[5]
Larus pacificus (Pacific Gull)[5]
Lecithaster gibbosus[5]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[5]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[5]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[5]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[5]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[5]
Lutra lutra (European Otter)[5]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[5]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[5]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[5]
Mnemiopsis leidyi (Leidy's comb jelly)[5]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[9]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[5]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[5]
Myxine glutinosa (Atlantic hagfish)[5]
Onychoprion anaethetus (Bridled Tern)[5]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[5]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[5]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[5]
Phaethon rubricauda (Red-tailed Tropicbird)[5]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[5]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[5]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[5]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[5]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[5]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[5]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[5]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Puffinus assimilis (Little Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus auricularis (Townsend's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus huttoni (Hutton's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus lherminieri (Audubon's Shearwater)[5]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[5]
Raja clavata (Roker)[5]
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)[5]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[5]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[10]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[5]
Sarda sarda (Stripe-backed pelamis)[5]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[5]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[5]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[5]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[5]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[5]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[5]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[5]
Stercorarius skua (Great Skua)[5]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[5]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[5]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[5]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[5]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[5]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[5]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[5]
Sternula saundersi (Saunders's Tern)[5]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[5]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[5]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[5]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[5]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus craveri (Craveri's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus's Murrelet)[5]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[5]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[5]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[5]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[5]
Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)[5]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[11]
Trachurus mediterraneus (Mediterranean scad)[12]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[5]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[5]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[5]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[5]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[13]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[5]
Zeus faber (European john dory)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[14]
Aphanurus stossichi[14]
Ascaris clupeae <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascaris gracilescens <Unverified Name>[14]
Brachyphallus crenatus[14]
Contracaecum osculatum[14]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Cotylurus pileatus[14]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[5]
Cryptocotyle lingua[14]
Derogenes adriaticus[14]
Derogenes varicus[14]
Ectenurus virgulus[14]
Gyrodactylus harengi[14]
Hemiurus communis[14]
Hemiurus luehei[14]
Lecithaster confusus[14]
Lecithaster gibbosus[14]
Mazocraes heterocotyle <Unverified Name>[14]
Opechona bacillaris[14]
Pronoprymna ventricosum[14]
Pseudacanthocotyloides heterocotyle <Unverified Name>[14]
Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle[5]
Pseudobacciger harengulae[14]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[14]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Stiftelsen Atlanterhavsparken

Distribution

Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Estonia; Latvia; Northeast Atlantic: North Sea and Baltic south to Morocco; also the Mediterranean, Adriatic and Black seas.; Russian Federation;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 4"Pelagic Fishes and Their Macroplankton Prey: Swimming Speeds", Sergey M. Ignatyev, Proceedings • Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-97-01, 1997, p. 31-39 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002, G.J. Pierce, M.B. Santos, R.J. Reid, I.A.P. Patterson and H.M. Ross, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. (2004), 84, 1241-1244 7Intraspecific dietary variation in the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Bay of Biscay: importance of fat fish, Laureline Meynier, Claire Pusineri, Jérôme Spitz, M. Begoña Santos, Graham J. Pierce, Vincent Ridoux, MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Vol. 354: 277–287, 2008 8BLUNTNOSE SIXGILL SHARK, HEXANCHUS GRISEUS (BONNATERRE, 1788), IN THE EASTERN NORTH SICILIAN WATERS, Antonio Celona, Alessandro De Maddalena, Teresa Romeo, Boll. Mus. civ. St. nat. Venezia, 56 (2005) p. 137-151 9Annual variation in diets, feeding locations and foraging behaviour of gannets in the North Sea: flexibility, consistency and constraint, K. C. Hamer, E. M. Humphreys, S. Garthe, J. Hennicke, G. Peters, D. Grémillet, R. A. Phillips, M. P. Harris, S. Wanless, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338: 295–305, 2007 10Hansson, S., Karlsson, L., Ikonen, E., Christensen, O., Mitans, A., Uzars, D., Petersson, E. and Ragnarsson, B. (2001), "Stomach analyses of Baltic salmon from 1959–1962 and 1994–1997: possible relations between diet and yolk-sac-fry mortality (M74)". Journal of Fish Biology, 58: 1730–1745 11Feeding habits and trophic levels of Mediterranean fish, Konstantinos I. Stergiou & Vasiliki S. Karpouzi, Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 11: 217–254, 2002 12Diet Composition of Horse Mackerel, Trachurus mediterraneus ponticus Aleev, 1956 (Osteichthyes: Carangidae) in the Bulgarian Black Sea Waters, Maria Hristova Yankova, Violin Stoyanov Raykov, Petya Bogomilova Frateva, Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8: 321-327 (2008) 13Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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