Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Cyprinodontiformes > Fundulidae > Fundulus > Fundulus heteroclitus

Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog)

Synonyms: Cobitis heteroclita; Cobitis macrolepidota; Esox pisciculus; Esox pisculentis; Esox pisculentus; Fundulus antillarum; Fundulus badius; Fundulus coenicolus; Fundulus fasciatus; Fundulus fonticola; Fundulus heteroclitus heteroclitus; Fundulus heteroclitus macrolepidotus; Fundulus lozanoi; Fundulus macrolepidota; Fundulus nigrofaciatus; Fundulus nisorius; Fundulus ornatus; Fundulus pisciculus; Fundulus pisculentis; Fundulus swampinus; Fundulus vinctus; Fundulus viridescens; Fundulus zebra; Hydargira nigrofaciata; Hydrargira ornata; Hydrargira swampina; Poecilia coenicola; Poecilia fasciata; Valencia lozanoi

Wikipedia Abstract

The mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) is a small killifish found along the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Also known as mummies, gudgeons, and mud minnows, these fish inhabit brackish and coastal waters including estuaries and salt marshes. The species is noted for its hardiness and ability to tolerate highly variable salinity, temperature fluctuations from 6 to 35 °C (43 to 95 °F), very low oxygen levels (down to 1 mg/L), and heavily polluted ecosystems. As a result, the mummichog is a popular research subject in embryological, physiological, and toxicological studies. It is also the first fish ever sent to space, aboard Skylab in 1973.
View Wikipedia Record: Fundulus heteroclitus


Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [2]  Omnivore, Detritivore
Adult Length [1]  6 inches (15 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Phyto-lithophils
Brood Guarder [1]  No
Litter Size [1]  800
Maximum Longevity [1]  4 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Cumberland Island National Seashore II 20629 Georgia, United States
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fort Pulaski National Monument V 4213 Georgia, United States
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      

Prey / Diet

Alitta acutifolia (ambergele zeeduizendpoot)[3]
Gammarus lawrencianus[3]
Gammarus mucronatus[3]
Melampus bidentatus (common marsh snail)[3]
Orchestia grillus[3]
Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)1
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)1
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Northern kingfish)1
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)1
Mycteroperca microlepis (Velvet rockfish)2
Prionotus carolinus (Searobin)1
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)2
Sciaenops ocellatus (Spotted bass)2
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)1
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)1
Syngnathus floridae (Florida pipefish)1
Syngnathus fuscus (Northern pipefish)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)1
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)1


Anguilla rostrata (American eel)[3]
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)[5]
Homo sapiens (man)[5]
Morone saxatilis (Striper bass)[5]
Mycteroperca microlepis (Velvet rockfish)[6]
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)[7]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[3]


Parasitized by 
Contracaecum robustum[5]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[8]
Crepidostomum cooperi[8]
Cyclustera ibisae <Unverified Name>[8]
Echinochasmus schwartzi <Unverified Name>[8]
Fundulotrema prolongis[8]
Glossocercus caribaensis <Unverified Name>[8]
Gonocercella trachinoti[5]
Gyrodactylus stephanus[8]
Homalometron pallidum[8]
Lasiotocus minutus[5]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[8]
Neoechinorhynchus rostratus[8]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[8]
Otobothrium cysticum[8]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[8]
Paratenuisentis ambiguus[8]
Phagicola diminuta <Unverified Name>[8]
Proteocephalus macrocephalus[8]
Salsuginus heterocliti <Unverified Name>[8]
Southwellina hispida[5]
Stephanostomum tenue[8]
Swingleus ancistrus[8]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Biodome de Montreal
Brevard Zoo
Newark Museum Association
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr


America, North - Inland waters; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northwest; Canada; Nearctic; Philippines; USA (contiguous states);



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
3VII. FOOD HABITS OF THE MUMMICHOG (Fundulus heteroclitus), Frank W. Steimle, Jr., NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-167, 2001 p. 101-109
4The role of small fish species in eelgrass food webs of the Baltic Sea, Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Ivo Christian Bobsien, 2006
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6Ontogenetic Shifts in the Diet of Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, (Goode and Bean), (Pisces: Serranidae), Michael D. Mullaney, Jr., Proceedings of the 43rd Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute, pp. 432-445 (1994)
7 Steimle FW, Pikanowski RA, McMillan DG, Zetlin CA, Wilk SJ. 2000. Demersal Fish and American Lobster Diets in the Lower Hudson - Raritan Estuary. US Dep Commer, NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 161; 106 p.
8Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access