Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Tetraodontiformes > Ostraciidae > Lactophrys > Lactophrys bicaudalis

Lactophrys bicaudalis (Trunkfish; Spotted trunkfish)

Synonyms: Lactyphrys bicaudalis; Ostracion bicaudale; Ostracion bicaudalis; Ostracium bicaudale; Rhinesomus bicaudalis
Language: French; Mandarin Chinese; Papiamento; Portuguese; Spanish; Wayuu

Wikipedia Abstract

The Spotted Trunkfish is a member of the family Ostraciidae. It can be found in reefs throughout the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean, the Caribbean, as well as the south eastern Atlantic Ocean. The species gets its name from the black spots it has covered over its yellow/golden body.The spotted trunkfish, like all trunkfish of the Genus Lactophrys, secretes a colorless toxin from glands on its skin when touched. The toxin is only dangerous when ingested, so there's no immediate harm to divers.
View Wikipedia Record: Lactophrys bicaudalis

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Banco Chinchorro Biosphere Reserve VI 358906 Mexico    
Cayos Cochinos Archipelago National Park Natural Marine Monument   Honduras  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Saba Marine Park National Marine Park II 5573 Netherlands Antilles  
Seaflower Marine Protected Area 15125514 Colombia      

Prey / Diet

Aegires ortizi[1]
Aplysia parvula (pygmy seahare)[1]
Atagema browni[1]
Calliostoma javanicum (chocolate-line topsnail)[1]
Cassis tuberosa (Caribbean helmet)[1]
Ceratophyllidia papilligera[1]
Coralliophila aberrans (globose coralsnail)[1]
Coralliophila caribaea (Caribbean coralsnail)[1]
Cymatium femorale (angular triton)[1]
Cypraecassis testiculus (reticulate cowrie-helmet)[1]
Dendrodoris krebsii (Kreb's doris)[1]
Dermomurex pauperculus (beggar aspella)[1]
Diadema antillarum (long-spined sea urchin)[2]
Diodora dysoni (Dyson's keyhole limpet)[1]
Ecteinascidia turbinata (Mangrove tunicate)[2]
Eoacmaea pustulata (spotted limpet)[1]
Erosaria spurca (Dirty Cowry)[1]
Eulithidium thalassicola (turtlegrass pheasant)[1]
Felimida clenchi (harlequin blue doris)[1]
Geitodoris pusae[1]
Hexabranchus morsomus[1]
Lithopoma caelatum (carved starsnail)[1]
Lithopoma tectum (West Indian starsnail)[1]
Lithopoma tuber (green starsnail)[1]
Lobatus costatus (milk conch)[1]
Lobatus gallus (roostertail conch)[1]
Lobatus gigas (pink or queen conch)[1]
Luria cinerea (atlantic gray cowrie)[1]
Macrocypraea zebra (measled cowrie)[1]
Modulus modulus (buttonsnail)[1]
Monoplex nicobaricus (goldmouth triton)[1]
Monoplex pilearis (hairy triton)[1]
Ophiocoma wendtii (red ophiocoma)[2]
Ophioderma rubicunda[2]
Oreaster reticulatus (cushioned star)[2]
Platydoris angustipes (Common leather doris)[1]
Polycarpa insulsa[2]
Smaragdia viridis (emerald nerite)[1]
Stylocheilus longicauda (blue-ring seahare)[1]
Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass)[2]
Tegula lividomaculata (West Indian tegula)[1]
Thalassia testudinum (turtlegrass)[2]
Turbo castanea (chestnut turban)[1]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Acanthurus chirurgus (Doctorfish)2
Acanthurus coeruleus (Yellow doctorfish)1
Aluterus schoepfii (Tobaccofish)2
Amphichthys cryptocentrus (Sapo bocon)1
Anisotremus surinamensis (Thicklip grunt)1
Archosargus rhomboidalis (Western Atlantic seabream)2
Balistes vetula (Turbot)1
Bodianus rufus (Spanish hogfish)3
Calamus bajonado (Jolthead porgy)1
Calamus calamus (Sugereye porgy)1
Calamus pennatula (Sheepshead porgy)1
Canthidermis sufflamen (Filefish)1
Canthigaster rostrata (Sharpnose pufferfish)2
Chaetodipterus faber (White angelfish)1
Chelonia mydas (Green Turtle)2
Diodon hystrix (Ajargo)1
Haemulon macrostomum (Spanish grunt)1
Haemulon sciurus (Yellow grunt)1
Halichoeres bivittatus (Slippery dick)1
Halichoeres poeyi (Black-ear wrasse)1
Halichoeres radiatus (Puddingwife wrasse)1
Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Ballyhoo halfbeak)2
Monacanthus ciliatus (Leather-fish)1
Mugil curema (White mullet)1
Prognathodes aculeatus (Poey's butterflyfish)1
Sanopus barbatus (Bearded toadfish)1
Scarus coelestinus (Midnight Parrotfish)1
Scarus guacamaia (Blue rainbow)2
Scarus taeniopterus (Blue chub)1
Scarus vetula (Blownose)1
Sparisoma aurofrenatum (Black parrot)1
Sparisoma chrysopterum (Redtail parrotfish)1
Sparisoma radians (Sleep on grass)1
Sparisoma rubripinne (Yellowtail parrotfish)1
Sparisoma viride (Stoplight parrotfish)1
Sphoeroides spengleri (Puffer)3
Stegastes fuscus (dusky damselfish)1
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Tikitiki)1
Trachinotus falcatus (Yellow-wax pompano)1


Carcharhinus perezii (Caribbean reef shark)[1]


Parasitized by 
Haliotrema glandulosum[1]
Haliotrema glanulosum <Unverified Name>[3]
Haliotrema guadeloupensis <Unverified Name>[3]
Haliotrema minutum[3]
Helicometrina mirzai[1]
Megapera gyrina[1]
Neoapocreadium angustum[3]
Neobenedenia melleni[3]


Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Ascension Island; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Southeast; Atlantic, Southwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Brazil; Caribbean Sea; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao Island; Discovery Bay; Dominica; Dominican Republic; East Brazil Shelf; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Gulf of Mexico; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; North Brazil Shelf; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent & the Grenadines; South Brazil Shelf; Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Is.; US Virgin Islands; USA (contiguous states); Venezuela; Virgin Islands (UK); Western Atlantic: Florida (USA), Bahamas, and southern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Ascension Island (Ref. 3696).;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
2Food Habits of Reef Fishes of the West Indies, John E. Randall, Stud. Trop. Oceanogr. 5, 665–847 (1967)
3Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access