Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Centrarchidae > Lepomis > Lepomis gibbosus

Lepomis gibbosus (kiver; Yellow sunfish; Sunny; Sunfish; Sun bass; Punky; Pumpkinseed sunfish; Pumpkinseed; Pond perch; Common sunfish)

Synonyms: Eupomotis gibbosus; Lepomus gibbosus; Perca gibbosa; Pomotis vulgaris
Language: Czech; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Hungarian; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Slovenian; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

(This article is about the fish. For the edible seed of a pumpkin, see Pepita.) The pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) is a North American freshwater fish of the sunfish family (Centrarchidae) of order Perciformes. It is also referred to as pond perch, common sunfish, punkys, sunfish, sunny, and kivver.
View Wikipedia Record: Lepomis gibbosus


Female Maturity [2]  2 years
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Adult Length [2]  16 inches (40 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In a nest
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Polyphils
Brood Guarder [2]  Yes
Litter Size [2]  14,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years
Migration [1]  Potamodromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Laurentian Great Lakes Canada, United States Nearctic Large Lakes    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Oregon & Northern California Coastal United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Tennessee United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge VI 16363 Delaware, United States
Bruce Peninsula National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Carl Sandburg Home National Hist. Site National Historic Site III 271 North Carolina, United States
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Congaree Swamp National Park II 6095 South Carolina, United States
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Epping Forest 3966 England, United Kingdom  
Fathom Five National Marine Park II   Ontario, Canada
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Georgian Bay Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Gettysburg National Military Park V 3560 Pennsylvania, United States
Great Smoky Mountains National Park II 515454 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States
Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge VI 3161 New Jersey, United States
Harpers Ferry National Historical Park VI 715 West Virginia, United States
Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site III 861 Pennsylvania, United States
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Manassas National Battlefield Park III 5132 Virginia, United States
Neusiedler See-Osterreichischer Teil   Austria      
New Jersey Pinelands Biosphere Reserve   New Jersey, United States  
New River Gorge National River National River and Wild and Scenic Riverway V 55591 West Virginia, United States
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
North Temperate Lakes LTER Site Long Term Ecological Research   Wisconsin, United States
Palava Protected Landscape Area V   Czech Republic  
Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve Nature Reserve IV 1352 Portugal  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Prespa National Park II 62043 Greece  
Prince William Forest Park 19378 District of Columbia, United States
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Reserve Srebarna Managed Reserve IV 2294 Bulgaria  
Rock Creek Park   District of Columbia, United States
Roosevelt Vanderbilt National Historic Site   New York, United States      
Saint Croix International Historic Site   Maine, United States
Saint Lawrence Islands National Park II   Ontario, Canada
Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site III 139 New Hampshire, United States
Shenandoah National Park II 108221 Virginia, United States
South Atlantic Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 20317 South Carolina, United States  
Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve 37548505 North Carolina, Tennessee, United States  
Studenetz 69315 Bulgaria  
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valley Forge National Historical Park VI 3509 Pennsylvania, United States
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States

Prey / Diet

Amnicola limosus (mud amnicola)[3]
Asellus aquaticus (waterlouse)[4]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]
Bosmina longirostris[4]
Ceriodaphnia reticulata[4]
Collotheca mutabilis[4]
Daphnia catawba[4]
Daphnia dubia[4]
Daphnia longiremis[4]
Daphnia longispina[4]
Daphnia retrocurva[4]
Diaphanosoma birgei[4]
Epischura lacustris[4]
Euhrychiopsis lecontei[5]
Gastropus stylifer[4]
Gyraulus deflectus (flexed gyro)[3]
Gyraulus parvus (ash gyro)[3]
Helisoma anceps (two-ridge rams-horn)[3]
Holopedium gibberum[4]
Hyalella azteca (Scud)[4]
Kellicottia bostoniensis[4]
Kellicottia longispina[4]
Keratella cochlearis[4]
Keratella crassa[4]
Keratella taurocephala[4]
Leptodiaptomus minutus[4]
Mesocyclops edax[4]
Polyarthra euryptera[4]
Polyarthra remata[4]
Polyarthra vulgaris[4]
Procladius choreus[4]
Pyrrhosoma nymphula (Large Red Damselfly)[4]
Trichocerca multicrinis[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Coregonus hoyi (Bloater)1
Cottus cognatus (Anadyr sculpin)1
Myoxocephalus quadricornis (Alaska fourhorn sculpin)1
Osmerus mordax (Rainbow smelt)1
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)1


Amia calva (Bowfin)[4]
Chlidonias hybrida (Whiskered Tern)[6]
Esox lucius (Jack)[4]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[4]
Mycteria americana (Wood Stork)[4]
Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)[4]
Salvelinus fontinalis (charr)[4]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus dirus[7]
Acanthocephalus lucii[7]
Actinocleidus gibbosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Actinocleidus recurvatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[7]
Apophallus brevis[7]
Apophallus donicus[7]
Apophallus venustus[7]
Azygia angusticauda[7]
Bothriocephalus claviceps[7]
Bothriocephalus cuspidatus[7]
Camallanus oxycephalus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cleidodiscus bifurcatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Cleidodiscus robustus <Unverified Name>[7]
Clinostomum complanatum[7]
Crepidostomum cooperi[7]
Cryptogonimus chili[7]
Cucullanellus cotylophora <Unverified Name>[7]
Dioctophyme renale[7]
Diplostomulum scheuringi <Unverified Name>[7]
Diplostomum huronense[7]
Diplostomum spathaceum[7]
Distomum isoporum <Unverified Name>[7]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[7]
Eustrongylides tubifex <Unverified Name>[7]
Fessisentis friedi[7]
Gyrodactylus macrochiri[7]
Haplocleidus furcatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Homalometron armatum[7]
Hysterothylacium analarum <Unverified Name>[7]
Hysterothylacium brachyurum <Unverified Name>[7]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[7]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[7]
Lyrodiscus seminolensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Metagonimus yokogawai[7]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[7]
Onchocleidus acer <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus affinis <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus attenuatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus dispar <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus furcatus <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus helicis <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Onchocleidus spiralis <Unverified Name>[7]
Pilum pilum[4]
Pisciamphistoma reynoldsi <Unverified Name>[7]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[7]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[7]
Proteocephalus ambloplitis <Unverified Name>[7]
Proteocephalus pearsei <Unverified Name>[7]
Proterometra macrostoma[7]
Pterocleidus acer <Unverified Name>[7]
Pterocleidus biramosus <Unverified Name>[7]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[7]
Raphidascaris canadensis <Unverified Name>[7]
Schulmanella petruschewskii <Unverified Name>[7]
Schyzocotyle acheilognathi[7]
Spinitectus carolini <Unverified Name>[7]
Thometrema lotzi[4]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[7]
Tylodelphys clavata[7]
Tylodelphys scheuringi <Unverified Name>[7]
Urocleidus dispar <Unverified Name>[7]
Urocleidus ferox <Unverified Name>[7]
Urocleidus similis <Unverified Name>[7]
Uvulifer ambloplitis <Unverified Name>[7]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Artis Zoo
BREC's Baton Rouge Zoo
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
Buttonwood Park Zoo
Detroit Zoological Society
ECHO Lake Aquarium & Science Center
John G. Shedd Aquarium
London Aquarium
Museum de Besancon
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
National Aquarium in Baltimore Inc
Natural History Museum of Adirondacks
Newport Aquarium
Nikolaev Zoo of Nikolaev-City Council
Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park
Zoo Zürich

Range Map

Africa-Inland Waters; Albegna; America, North - Inland waters; America, South - Inland waters; Asia - Inland waters; Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Chile; Congo, Republic of; Croatia; Cuba; Czech Republic; Danube; Elbe; Estonia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Fiora; France; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Lakes; Greece; Guatemala; Hungary; Italy; Lake Waccamaw; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, Fmr Yug Rp of; Mississippi; Missouri; Moldova, Republic of; Morocco; Nearctic; Neotropical; Netherlands; North America: New Brunswick in Canada to South Carolina in the USA. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; North America: New Brunswick in Canada to South Carolina in the USA; Great Lakes, Hudson Bay and upper Mississippi basins from Quebec and New York west to southeast Manitoba and North Dakota, and south to north Kentucky and Missouri. Widely introduced. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Ombrone; Palearctic; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Switzerland; Tagus; Thames; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom; Venezuela;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Variation in resource abundance affects diet and feeding morphology in the pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus), Gary G. Mittelbach, Craig W. Osenberg, and Peter C. Wainwright, Oecologia (1992) 90: 8-13
4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
5The aquatic moth Acentria ephemerella as a key species in submerged aquatic vegetation - direct and trait-mediated interactions with predators and food plants, Oliver Miler, PhD thesis at the Limnological Institute / University of Konstanz, research group Limnology of Lakes, 2008
6Reproductive parameters in relation to food supply in the whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida), Jean-Marc Paillisson, Sébastien Reeber, Alexandre Carpentier, Loïc Marion, J Ornithol (2007) 148:69–77
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access