Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Atheriniformes > Atherinopsidae > Menidia > Menidia beryllina

Menidia beryllina (Waxen silverside; Tide-water silverside; Tidewater silverside; Mississippi silverside; Inland silverside)

Synonyms: Chirostoma beryllinum; Ischnomembras gabunensis; Menidia beryllina cerea
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Wikipedia Abstract

The inland silverside (Menidia beryllina) is a neotropical silverside native to eastern North America, and introduced into California. It is a fish of estuaries and freshwater environments. Inland silversides are quite elongate even for silverside, with lengths 6 to 7 times depth. They have large eyes, a considerably upturned mouth, and a head noticeably flattened on top. Of the two widely separated dorsal fins, the anterior fin is small and has 4-5 weak spines, while the posterior fin is larger, with one spine and 8 or 9 rays. The lengthy anal fin is somewhat sickle-shaped, has one spine and 16 to 18 rays. As befits the name, they are silvery on the sides; the back is somewhat yellowish, and the underside is a translucent greenish. These are small fish, with 15 cm recorded, but most adult
View Wikipedia Record: Menidia beryllina


Female Maturity [1]  1 year
Diet [2]  Planktivore, Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Adult Length [1]  6 inches (15 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Phytophils
Brood Guarder [1]  No
Litter Size [1]  20,000
Maximum Longevity [1]  2 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Ouachita Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Big Thicket Biosphere Reserve National Park II 616880 Texas, United States
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cape Lookout National Seashore II 18379 North Carolina, United States
Carolinian-South Atlantic Biosphere Reserve 310228 North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, United States      
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States
Lake Meredith National Recreation Area V   Texas, United States
Little River National Wildlife Refuge   Oklahoma, United States
Reserva de la Biosfera de Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve VI 1312618 Mexico  

Prey / Diet

Acartia tonsa[3]
Americamysis almyra[3]
Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)[3]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[3]
Brevoortia patronus (Bunker)[3]
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)[3]
Corophium alienense[4]
Cyathura polita (Slender isopod)[3]
Diopatra cuprea (tube worm)[3]
Edotia montosa[3]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[3]
Gammarus mucronatus[3]
Grandidierella bonnieroides[3]
Labidocera aestiva[3]
Laeonereis culveri (Culver's sandworm)[3]
Leptochelia rapax[3]
Menidia beryllina (Waxen silverside)[3]
Nippoleucon hinumensis[4]
Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp)[3]
Ruppia cirrhosa (spiral ditchgrass)[3]
Syngnathus scovelli (Scovell's pipefish)[3]
Taphromysis louisianae[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Atherinops affinis (Topsmelt silverside)2
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)1


Astroscopus y-graecum (Southern stargazer)[3]
Bagre marinus (Slooprig)[3]
Bairdiella chrysoura (Silver perch)[3]
Cynoscion nebulosus (Spotted weakfish)[3]
Doryteuthis opalescens (california market squid)[3]
Doryteuthis pleii (arrow squid)[5]
Elops saurus (Ladyfish)[3]
Fundulus grandis (Gulf killifish)[3]
Ictalurus furcatus (blue catfish)[3]
Lepisosteus oculatus (Spotted gar)[3]
Lepisosteus osseus (Long-nose gar)[6]
Lobotes surinamensis (Tripple tail)[3]
Lutjanus campechanus (Red snapper)[3]
Menidia beryllina (Waxen silverside)[3]
Menticirrhus americanus (Woundhead)[3]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[3]
Mycteria americana (Wood Stork)[3]
Paralichthys lethostigma (Southern flounder)[3]
Pomoxis annularis (Calicos bass)[3]
Prunum bellulum (little oat marginella)[3]
Sciaenops ocellatus (Spotted bass)[3]
Scomberomorus cavalla (Spanish mackerel)[3]
Scomberomorus maculatus (Spanish mackerel)[3]
Sphyraena barracuda (Striped seapike)[3]
Synodus foetens (Soapfish)[3]


Parasitized by 
Polymorphus brevis[7]
Southwellina hispida[7]

Range Map

America, North - Inland waters; Arkansas; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Gulf of Mexico; Mexico; Mississippi; Nearctic; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Rio Grande; Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf; USA (contiguous states); Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to southern Florida in USA and around Gulf of Mexico to northeastern Mexico.;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Community composition and diet of fishes as a function of tidal channel geomorphology, Tammie A. Visintainer, Stephen M. Bollens, Charles Simenstad, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 321: 227–243, 2006
5CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database
6Food Habits, Sex Ratios, and Size of Longnose Gar in Southwestern Oklahoma, Jack D. Tyler, Jerry R. Webb, Tyler R. Wright, Jack D. Hargett, Keland J. Mask, and David R. Schucker, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 74: 41-42 (1994)
7Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access