Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Pholidae > Pholis > Pholis gunnellus

Pholis gunnellus (Tissy; Tansy; Salt-water snake; Rock gunnel; Gunnel; Crinkly dick; Butter-fish; Butterfish; Nine-eyes)

Synonyms: Blennius europaeus; Blennius gunnellus; Blennius muraenoides; Centronotus gunnellus; Gunnellus affinis; Gunnellus cornubiensium; Gunnellus ingens; Gunnellus macrocephalus; Gunnellus vulgaris; Muraenoides sujef; Ophidion imberbe; Ophidium fulvescens; Ophidium mucronatum; Pholis gunellus
Language: Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Icelandic; Latvian; Lithuanian; Manx; Norwegian; Polish; Russian; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The rock gunnel or Butterfish(Pholis gunnellus) is an eel-like fish found in the intertidal and subtidal zones of the North Atlantic. It is one of two species of gunnel native to the Atlantic Ocean, the other being the banded gunnel. The rock gunnel is capable of remaining above the waterline at low tide and breathing air.
View Wikipedia Record: Pholis gunnellus


Maximum Longevity [1]  5 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern British Isles Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Chesil and the Fleet 4032 England, United Kingdom
Clogwyni Pen Llyn/ Seacliffs of Lleyn 2591 Wales, United Kingdom
Drigg Coast 3453 England, United Kingdom
Eileanan agus Sgeiran Lios mór 2816 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Firth of Lorn 51830 Scotland, United Kingdom
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Flamborough Head 15597 England, United Kingdom  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Isle of May 882 Scotland, United Kingdom
Isles of Scilly Complex 66350 England, United Kingdom    
Loch Creran 3030 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Loch Laxford 3018 Scotland, United Kingdom
Loch nam Madadh 5734 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lochs Duich, Long and Alsh Reefs 5883 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Lundy 7573 England, United Kingdom  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Moray Firth 373987 Scotland, United Kingdom  
Morecambe Bay 151985 England, United Kingdom
Morvern Woods 4763 Scotland, United Kingdom
North Norfolk Coast 7926 England, United Kingdom  
North Northumberland Dunes 2836 England, United Kingdom  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Ruegen   Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sanday 27112 Scotland, United Kingdom    
Shell Flat and Lune Deep 26107 England, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Sound of Arisaig (Loch Ailort to Loch Ceann Traigh) 11260 Scotland, United Kingdom
South Devon Shore Dock 843 England, United Kingdom  
Start Point to Plymouth Sound & Eddystone 84204 England, United Kingdom  
Sunart 25320 Scotland, United Kingdom
Taynish and Knapdale Woods 2388 Scotland, United Kingdom
Thanet Coast 6928 England, United Kingdom
The Vadills 154 Scotland, United Kingdom
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Yell Sound Coast 3807 Scotland, United Kingdom

Prey / Diet

Abludomelita obtusata[2]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[2]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[2]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[2]
Dyopedos porrectus[2]
Ericthonius difformis[2]
Galathea intermedia[2]
Gammarus locusta[2]
Gattyana cirrhosa (gekroesde zeerups)[2]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[2]
Hemiarthrus abdominalis[2]
Jaera albifrons[2]
Lagis koreni (Köcherwurm)[2]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[2]
Neomysis integer[2]
Oikopleura dioica[2]
Pandalina brevirostris[2]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[2]
Paracalanus parvus[2]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[2]
Porcellana longicornis (long-clawed porcelain crab)[3]
Pseudocalanus minutus[2]
Semibalanus balanoides (Barnacle)[2]
Temora longicornis[2]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Agonus cataphractus (Pogge)1
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)1
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)1


Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[2]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[2]
Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron)[2]
Cepphus grylle (Black Guillemot)[2]
Chelidonichthys cuculus (cockoo gurnard)[2]
Cryptocotyle lingua[2]
Derogenes varicus[2]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[2]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)[2]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[2]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[2]
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)[2]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[5]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[2]
Lutra lutra (European Otter)[2]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[2]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[2]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[2]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[6]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[7]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[8]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[2]
Podocotyle angulata[2]
Raja clavata (Roker)[2]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[2]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[2]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[2]
Squatina dumeril (Atlantic angelshark)[2]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[2]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[2]


Mutual (symbiont) 
Gymnophallus choledochus[2]
Levinseniella brachysoma[2]
Maritrema subdolum[2]
Profilicollis botulus[2]
Sacculina carcini[2]


Parasitized by 
Andracantha mergi[9]
Anisakis simplex[9]
Ascarophis arctica <Unverified Name>[9]
Ascarophis morrhuae <Unverified Name>[9]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[2]
Cryptocotyle lingua[2]
Echinorhynchus gadi[9]
Hemiurus communis[9]
Lecithochirium furcolabiatum[9]
Lecithochirium rufoviride[9]
Microcotyle fusiformis[9]
Podocotyle angulata[9]
Podocotyle atomon[9]
Podocotyle reflexa[9]
Prosorhynchus crucibulum[9]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Artis Zoo
John G. Shedd Aquarium
London Aquarium
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center


Arctic Ocean; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Baltic Sea; Beaufort Sea; Belgium; Canada; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Denmark; East Siberian Sea; Estonia; Faroe Plateau; Finland; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Greenland; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Laptev Sea; Latvia; Lithuania; Netherlands; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; North Atlantic: Kanin Peninsula southward to La Rochelle (including White Sea, North Sea and Baltic), also Iceland, but not eastern Greenland, Spitzbergen or Novaya Zemlya. Western Atlantic: Labrador, Canada to Delaware Bay, USA (Ref. 7251).; North Sea; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Penobscot Bay; Poland; Russian Federation; Scotian Shelf; Sweden; Tagus; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
3Pinnegar, J.K. and Platts, M. (2011). DAPSTOM - An Integrated Database & Portal for Fish Stomach Records. Version 3.6. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, UK. Phase 3, Final Report, July 2011, 35pp.
4PRELIMINARY REPORT FROM A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE DIET OF FOUR GADOID FISHES IN A FJORD OF WESTERN NORWAY, A.G. Vea Salvanes, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, C.M. 1986/G: 71, Demersal Fish Committee
5Food and Ontogenetic Shifts in Feeding of the Goosefish, Lophius Americanus, Michael P. Armstrong, John A. Musick, and James A. Colvocoresses, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 18: 99–103
6Feeding ecology of sympatric European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis and great cormorants P. carbo in Iceland, Kristjan Lilliendahl, Jon Solmundsson, Marine Biology (2006) 149: 979–990
7Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
8Annual Variation in Diet of Breeding Great Cormorants: Does it Reflect Varying Recruitment of Gadoids?, SVEIN-HÅKON LORENTSEN, DAVID GRÉMILLET AND GEIR HÅVARD NYMOEN, Waterbirds 27(2): 161-169, 2004
9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access