Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gasterosteiformes > Gasterosteidae > Pungitius > Pungitius pungitius

Pungitius pungitius (Ninespine stickleback; tenspined stickleback; Tiny burnstickle; Thorny back; Thornback; Ten-spined stikleback; Stickleback; Ten-spine stickleback; Spawnytickle; Spawnykettle; Spawn; Sparny; Sparnytickle; Sparnicle; Spantickle; Spannystickle; Spanny; Spannistickle; Spanicle; Prickly back; Prickly; Prickley; Pinfish; Nine-spined stikleback; Nine-spined stickleback; Doctor; Branstickle; Branchy; Barnytickle; Barnystickle; Barnstickle)

Synonyms: Gasteracanthus pungitius; Gasterosteus blanchardi; Gasterosteus concinnus; Gasterosteus dekayi; Gasterosteus globiceps; Gasterosteus mainensis; Gasterosteus nebulosus; Gasterosteus occidentalis; Gasterosteus pungitius; Gasterosteus pungitius brachypoda; Pungitius pungitius pungitius; Pygosteus pungitius; Pygosteus pungitius brachypoda
Language: Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Finnish; French; Gaelic, Irish; German; Inuktitut; Japanese; Korean; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), also called the ten-spined stickleback, is a freshwater species of fish in the Gasterosteidae family that inhabits temperate waters. Widely but locally distributed throughout the UK and along the Atlantic coast of North America, it is also found in many northern and eastern European countries, in Greenland and in Turkey, and in the Far East. Despite its name, the number of spines can vary from 8 to 12.
View Wikipedia Record: Pungitius pungitius


Female Maturity [1]  1 year 6 months
Male Maturity [4]  1 year 6 months
Diet [2]  Carnivore
Adult Length [1]  3.5 inches (9 cm)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In a nest
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Ariadnophils
Brood Guarder [1]  Yes
Litter Size [1]  350
Maximum Longevity [1]  5 years
Migration [3]  Anadromous


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Acadia National Park II 35996 Maine, United States
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aulavik National Park II 3021211 Northwest Territories, Canada
Auyuittuq National Park II 4808115 Nunavut, Canada
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Ib 2823882 Alaska, United States
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Cape Breton Highlands National Park II 234333 Nova Scotia, Canada  
Carmarthen Bay Dunes/ Twyni Bae Caerfyrddin 2981 Wales, United Kingdom
Corsydd Môn/ Anglesey Fens 1154 Wales, United Kingdom  
Eryri/ Snowdonia 48773 Wales, United Kingdom  
Fenland 1529 England, United Kingdom
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Fundy National Park II 52716 New Brunswick, Canada
Gros Morne National Park II 476632 Newfoundland, Canada
Hackpen Hill 89 England, United Kingdom  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Kejimkujik National Park II 94203 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kejimkujik Seaside Adjunct National Park II 4970 Nova Scotia, Canada
Kenfig/ Cynffig 2945 Wales, United Kingdom
Kouchibouguac National Park II 59161 New Brunswick, Canada
Loch Druidibeg National Nature Reserve   Scotland, United Kingdom
Müggelspreeniederung 1558 Germany  
Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve II 20461 Quebec, Canada
Mointeach Scadabhaigh 8204 Scotland, United Kingdom
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Norfolk Valley Fens 1523 England, United Kingdom  
North Uist Machair 7533 Scotland, United Kingdom
Oberlausitzer Heide - und Teichlandschaft Nature Reserve IV 32467 Germany  
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Prince Edward Island National Park II   Prince Edward Island, Canada  
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary Migratory Bird Sanctuary IV 15335601 Nunavut, Canada
Röderaue und Teiche unterhalb Großenhain 5253 Germany  
Redberry Lake Biosphere Reserve 277252 Saskatchewan, Canada
Rheinsberger Rhin und Hellberge 2123 Germany  
River Itchen 764 England, United Kingdom
River Wensum 943 England, United Kingdom  
Ruegen   Germany      
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schaalsee   Germany      
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Sirmilik National Park II 5475284 Canada
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
South Uist Machair 8482 Scotland, United Kingdom
Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve 3821173 Canada  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Stadthavel 639 Germany  
Stockshof - Behlower Wiesen 1218 Germany  
Tacumshin Lake 1381 Ireland  
Terra Nova National Park IV 125894 Newfoundland, Canada
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada

Prey / Diet

Acartia tonsa[5]
Chydorus sphaericus[5]
Eurytemora affinis[5]


Acipenser fulvescens (Lake Sturgeon)[5]
Cottus gobio (Bullhead)[5]
Gavia pacifica (Pacific Loon)[6]
Hiodon alosoides (Yellow herring)[5]
Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)[7]
Pusa hispida saimensis (Saimaa seal)[8]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[9]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[5]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[5]
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)[5]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[10]
Acanthocephalus clavula[10]
Acanthocephalus dirus[10]
Acanthostomum balthicum[10]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[10]
Anisakis simplex[10]
Ascarophis morhua <Unverified Name>[10]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[10]
Brachyphallus crenatus[10]
Bunocotyle cingulata[10]
Bunodera eucaliae <Unverified Name>[10]
Bunodera luciopercae[10]
Camallanus lacustris[10]
Cardiocephalus longicollis[10]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Cotylurus pileatus[10]
Crepidostomum metoecus[10]
Cryptocotyle concava[10]
Cryptocotyle lingua[10]
Cyathocephalus truncatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Derogenes varicus[10]
Desportesius brevicaudatus <Unverified Name>[10]
Diphyllobothrium dendriticum[10]
Diphyllobothrium ditremum[10]
Diphyllobothrium vogeli <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[10]
Diplostomum gobiorum[10]
Diplostomum pungitii <Unverified Name>[10]
Diplostomum spathaceum[10]
Diplostomum volvens[10]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[10]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[10]
Gyrodactylus arcuatus[10]
Gyrodactylus avalonia[10]
Gyrodactylus bychowskii <Unverified Name>[10]
Gyrodactylus bychowskyi[10]
Gyrodactylus canadensis[10]
Gyrodactylus eucaliae <Unverified Name>[10]
Gyrodactylus pungitii[10]
Gyrodactylus rarus[10]
Gyrodactylus salaris (Salmon Fluke)[5]
Gyrodactylus stephanus[5]
Hemiurus communis[10]
Hemiurus luehei[10]
Ichthyocotylurus erraticus[10]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[10]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[10]
Magnibursatus caudofilamentosa[10]
Metorchis bilis <Unverified Name>[10]
Neoechinorhynchus crassus[10]
Neoechinorhynchus cristatus[10]
Neoechinorhynchus pungitius[10]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[10]
Paracuaria adunca <Unverified Name>[10]
Phyllodistomum pungitii <Unverified Name>[10]
Podocotyle atomon[10]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[10]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[10]
Posthodiplostomum brevicaudatum[10]
Proteocephalus ambiguus <Unverified Name>[10]
Proteocephalus filicollis[10]
Proteocephalus macrocephalus[10]
Pygidiopsis genata[5]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[10]
Schistocephalus pungitii <Unverified Name>[10]
Schistocephalus solidus[10]
Tetracotyle encephali <Unverified Name>[10]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[10]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium

Range Map

Alaska (USA); America, North - Inland waters; Arctic Ocean; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Baltic Sea; Beaufort Sea; Belarus; Belgium; Canada; China; Chukchi Sea; Circumarctic: Arctic and Atlantic drainages across Canada and Alaska, and as far south as New Jersey, USA; Pacific coast of Alaska; Great Lakes basin; also in Eurasia (Ref. 5723). Eurasia: coastal areas of northern Europe, from Netherlands to northern Russia, including southern Norway and Baltic basin. Widely distributed inland in eastern Scandinavia. Extends eastward to Siberia and Japan, but remains to be confirmed that East Asia populations are conspecific with European ones (Ref. 59043).; Circumarctic: Atlantic drainages across Canada as far south as New Jersey, USA; Liard River in British Columbia, Canada (Ref. 10882); Pacific coast of Alaska; Great Lakes basin; drainages of northern Europe and Asia, from the UK and France to Siberia, Ru; Circumarctic: Atlantic drainages across Canada as far south as New Jersey, USA; Liard River in British Columbia, Canada (Ref. 10882); Pacific coast of Alaska; Great Lakes basin; drainages of northern Europe and Asia, from the UK and France to Siberia, Russia, Korea, Japan, and China.; Denmark; Estonia; Europe - Inland waters; Finland; France; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Lakes; Greenland; Ireland; Japan; Korea, Republic of; Kuril Islands; Latvia; Lithuania; Mackenzie; Mississippi; Moldova, Republic of; Nearctic; Netherlands; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Onega River; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Palearctic; Poland; Russian Federation; Sakhalin Island; Scotian Shelf; Sea of Okhotsk; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); United Kingdom; Volga;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
2Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM
4de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.
8The diet of the Saimaa ringed seal Phoca hispida saimensis, Mervi KUNNASRANTA, Heikki HYVÄRINEN, Tero SIPILÄ and Jouni T. KOSKELA, Acta Theriologica 44 (4): 443^450, 1999.
9Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979
10Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access