Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Alosa > Alosa fallax
 

Alosa fallax (Twaite shad; Twait shad; Shad; Killarney shad)

Synonyms: Alosa africana; Alosa fallax fallax; Alosa fallax nilotica; Alosa ficta; Alosa squamopinnata; Clupea fallax; Clupea nilotica; Clupea rufa; Clupea sardinella
Language: Albanian; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Icelandic; Italian; Latvian; Lithuanian; Maltese; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish

Wikipedia Abstract

The twait shad or twaite shad (Alosa fallax) is a species of fish in the Clupeidae family. It is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and is an anadromous fish which lives in the sea but migrates into fresh water to spawn. In appearance it resembles an Atlantic herring but has a row of six to ten distinctive spots on its silvery flanks. They become mature when three or more years old and migrate to estuaries, later swimming up rivers to spawn. Populations of this fish have declined due to overfishing, pollution and habitat destruction. Conservation of this species is covered by Appendix III of the Bern Convention and Appendix II and V of the European Community Habitats Directive.
View Wikipedia Record: Alosa fallax

Attributes

Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Lithophils
Brood Guarder [1]  Yes
Migration [1]  Diadromous

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Agger Tange, Nissum Bredning, Skibsted Fjord og Agerø 63217 Denmark  
Aiguamolls de l'Alt Empordà 26765 Spain  
Arcipelago La Maddalena 51781 Italy  
Aree delle risorgive di Viarolo, Bacini di Torrile, Fascia golenale del Po 6479 Italy  
Basso Garda 3536 Italy  
Basso Taro 2483 Italy  
Basso Trebbia 4507 Italy  
Berwickshire and North Northumberland Coast 160731 England/Scotland, United Kingdom  
Borkum-Riffgrund 154559 Germany      
Chesil and the Fleet 4032 England, United Kingdom
Comprensorio Tolfetano-Cerite-Manziate 166977 Italy  
Costa e Entroterra di Bosa, Suni e Montresta 20302 Italy  
DELTA ACHELOOU, LIMNOTHALASSA MESOLONGIOU - AITOLIKOU, EKVOLES EVINOU, NISOI ECHINADES, NISOS PETALA 87747 Greece  
DELTA EVROU 31031 Greece  
DELTA EVROU KAI DYTIKOS VRACHIONAS 24359 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 55561 Greece  
DELTA NESTOU KAI LIMNOTHALASSES KERAMOTIS KAI NISOS THASOPOULA 36139 Greece  
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Delta de l'Ebre 119562 Spain  
Delta del Po 61806 Italy  
Dråby Vig 4146 Denmark  
EKVOLES POTAMOU STRYMONA 3205 Greece  
Elbe zwischen Geesthacht und Hamburg 1417 Germany  
Estuário do Sado 60868 Portugal  
Estuário do Tejo 110634 Portugal  
Estuários dos Rios Minho e Coura 8384 Portugal  
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Firth of Tay & Eden Estuary 38085 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fiume Po da Rio Boriacco a Bosco Ospizio 14018 Italy  
Fiume Po da Stellata a Mesola e Cavo Napoleonico 7759 Italy  
Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona 6593 Italy  
Fontanili di Gattatico e Fiume Enza 1910 Italy  
Golena del Po di Gualtieri, Guastalla e Luzzara 2768 Italy  
Golfo di Orosei 71515 Italy  
Hamburger Unterelbe 1747 Germany  
Hamburgisches Wattenmeer 33977 Germany    
Humber Estuary 90582 England, United Kingdom
Isola Asinara 23893 Italy    
Isola Maria Luigia 1374 Italy  
Kurshskaya Kosa National Park 16376 Kaliningrad, Russia  
LIMNES KAI LIMNOTHALASSES TIS THRAKIS - EVRYTERI PERIOCHI KAI PARAKTIA ZONI 72787 Greece  
LIMNES VISTONIS, ISMARIS - LIMNOTHALASSES PORTO LAGOS, ALYKI PTELEA, XIROLIMNI, KARATZA 45016 Greece  
Lago di Mezzola e Pian di Spagna 3981 Italy  
Lago di Varese 4295 Italy  
Laguna di Marano e Grado 40434 Italy  
Laguna di Venezia 136417 Italy  
Lands End and Cape Bank 74557 England, United Kingdom  
Lovns Bredning, Hjarbæk Fjord og Skals, Simested og Nørre Ådal, samt Skravad Bæk 58102 Denmark  
Luce Bay and Sands 120487 Scotland, United Kingdom
Mühlenberger Loch/Neßsand 1987 Germany  
NTP S-H Wattenmeer und angrenzende Küstengebiete 1118041 Germany  
Nissum Fjord 27100 Denmark  
Ostoja Slowinska 79446 Poland    
Padule di Diaccia Botrona 3331 Italy  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Parco marino di S. Maria di Castellabate 12402 Italy  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
Penhale Dunes 1535 England, United Kingdom    
Pialasse Baiona, Risega e Pontazzo 3941 Italy  
Pineta di Casalborsetti, Pineta Staggioni, Duna di Porto Corsini 1431 Italy  
Pineta di San Vitale, Bassa del Pirottolo 3020 Italy  
Plymouth Sound and Estuaries 15820 England, United Kingdom
Punte Alberete, Valle Mandriole 2402 Italy  
Ria de Aveiro 127029 Portugal  
Ribadeo 4733 Spain  
Ringkøbing Fjord og Nymindestrømmen 68409 Denmark  
Riserva Regionale Lanca di Gerole 2916 Italy  
River Usk/ Afon Wysg 2490 Wales, United Kingdom  
River Wye/ Afon Gwy 5523 England/Wales, United Kingdom  
SBZ 1 / ZPS 1 27164 Belgium  
SBZ 2 / ZPS 2 35751 Belgium  
SBZ 3 / ZPS 3 14038 Belgium    
SPA Pommersche Bucht 495241 Germany    
SPA Östliche Deutsche Bucht 774707 Germany      
Sacca di Goro, Po di Goro, Valle Dindona, Foce del Po di Volano 12039 Italy  
Severn Estuary/ Môr Hafren 182155 England/Wales, United Kingdom
Solway Firth 107829 England/Scotland, United Kingdom
Spinadesco 2567 Italy  
Stagno di Corru S'Ittiri 14083 Italy  
Stagno di Mistras di Oristano 3988 Italy  
Sylter Außenriff 1313190 Germany      
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Ujscie Odry i Zalew Szczecinski 130007 Poland  
Unterweser 11651 Germany  
Vadehavet med Ribe Å, Tved Å og Varde Å vest for Varde 332930 Denmark  
Vale do Guadiana 189151 Portugal  
Vallazza 1310 Italy  
Valle Bertuzzi, Valle Porticino - Canneviè 6647 Italy  
Valle del Mezzano, Valle Pega 46611 Italy  
Valli di Comacchio 41464 Italy  
Valli di Novellara 4552 Italy  
Vene di Bellocchio, Sacca di Bellocchio, Foce del Fiume Reno, Pineta di Bellocchio 5540 Italy  
Venø, Venø Sund 7230 Denmark  
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia 17848 Italy  
Vidå med tilløb, Rudbøl Sø og Magisterkogen 1221 Denmark  
Wolin i Uznam 76089 Poland    
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  
Zalew Wislany i Mierzeja Wislana 100974 Poland  
Zatoka Pucka i Pólwysep Helski 66334 Poland    
Ålborg Bugt, Randers Fjord og Mariager Fjord 169472 Denmark  

Prey / Diet

Atherina boyeri (Big-scale sand smelt)[2]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[2]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[2]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[2]
Neomysis integer[2]
Parathemisto oblivia[2]
Peringia ulvae (Laver spire shell)[2]
Pomatoschistus microps (Common goby)[2]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[2]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[2]
Sepia officinalis (common or european cuttlefish)[2]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[2]

Predators

Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[2]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Contracaecum aduncum[3]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[3]
Eubothrium fragile[3]
Goezia anguillae <Unverified Name>[3]
Hemiurus appendiculatus[3]
Hysterothylacium fabri <Unverified Name>[3]
Lecithaster gibbosus[3]
Mazocraes alosae[3]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[3]
Pentagramma symmetricum <Unverified Name>[3]
Pseudamphistomum truncatum[3]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[3]

Distribution

Adour; Africa-Inland Waters; Albania; Algeria; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canary Current; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Channel Islands; Croatia; Cyprus; Denmark; Dordogne; Egypt; Elbe; England and Wales (UK); Estonia; Europe - Inland waters; Faeroe Islands; Faroe Plateau; Finland; France; Galician Shelf; Garonne; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Greece; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Latvia; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Lithuania; Loire; Malta; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Monaco; Morocco; Netherlands; Nile; North Sea; Northeast Atlantic: from southern coasts of Scandinavia to the coast of Morocco, including the British Islands and the Baltic Sea (Ref. 188, Ref. 51442). Also whole of Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 188, Ref. 51442), including the Black Sea (Ref. 26334). Some; Northeast Atlantic: from southern coasts of Scandinavia to the coast of Morocco, including the British Islands and the Baltic Sea (Ref. 188, Ref. 51442). Also whole of Mediterranean Sea (Ref. 188, Ref. 51442), including the Black Sea (Ref. 26334). Some subspecies have been recognized mainly on the basis of gill raker counts (Ref. 188). In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).; Northern Ireland; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Palearctic; Poland; Portugal; Rhine; Rhône; Romania; Russian Federation; Scotland (UK); Seine; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tagus; Tunisia; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by
1Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4, www.freshwaterecology.info, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
2Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
3Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Specially protected natural territories of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access