Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Atheriniformes > Atherinidae > Atherina > Atherina presbyter

Atherina presbyter (common sand smelt; Sand-smelt; Sand smelt; Sandsmelt; Atherine)

Synonyms: Hepsetia presbyter
Language: Catalan; Danish; Dutch; Finnish; French; Gaelic, Irish; German; Greek; Italian; Mandarin Chinese; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The sand smelt (Atherina presbyter) is a species of marine fish of the Atherinidae family, common in the north-eastern Atlantic from the Danish straits to the Canary Islands and the western Mediterranean Sea. They live in shoals near the water surface, but go deep in winter.
View Wikipedia Record: Atherina presbyter


Diet [1]  Carnivore (Invertebrates)
Brood Dispersal [1]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [1]  Phytophils
Brood Guarder [1]  No
Maximum Longevity [2]  4 years
Migration [1]  Intraoceanic


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Italian Peninsula & Islands France, Italy, Malta, Monaco Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
DOÑANA 281453 Spain  
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Waddensea Area Nature Reserve with Management Subsidy IV 600666 Netherlands  
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Waddensea of Schleswig-Holstein Biosphere Reserve 724639 Germany
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Acartia clausi[3]
Calanus finmarchicus[3]
Oithona setigera[3]


Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)[3]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[3]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[3]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[3]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[3]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[3]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[3]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[3]
Stenella coeruleoalba (Striped Dolphin)[3]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[3]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[3]
Zosterisessor ophiocephalus (Grass goby)[3]


Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[5]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[3]
Cryptocotyle lingua[3]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Artis Zoo
Rotterdam Zoo


Algeria; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Belgium; Canary Current; Canary Islands; Cantabrian Sea; Cape Verde; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Channel Islands; Denmark; Eastern Atlantic: Kattegat (rare) and British Isles to Canary Islands, Mauritania and Cape Verde, also western Mediterranean.; England and Wales (UK); France; Galician Shelf; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Gibraltar; Iberian Coastal; Ireland; Isle of Man; Madeira Islands; Mauritania; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Morocco; Netherlands; North Sea; Northern Ireland; Portugal; Scotland (UK); Spain; Tagus; Tunisia; Turkey; United Kingdom;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Intraspecific dietary variation in the short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Bay of Biscay: importance of fat fish, Laureline Meynier, Claire Pusineri, Jérôme Spitz, M. Begoña Santos, Graham J. Pierce, Vincent Ridoux, MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES Vol. 354: 277–287, 2008
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access