Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Clupea > Clupea harengus
 

Clupea harengus (Yawling; Whitebait; Summer herring; Sugar cured fish; Spring herring; Split cure herring; Split; Soused herring; Silver cured herring; Sild; Shore herring; Sea stick; Sea herring; Sea Atlantic herring; Rounder; Red herring; Protestant; Pickling; Pickled herring; Pearl essence; Oriental cure; Norwegian sloe; Norwegian silver herring; Norwegian milker; Norwegian herring; Norwegian cured herring; Newcastle kipper; Mustard herring; Murman herring; Milker herring; Mesh herring; Melker; Mediterranean cure; Mattie; Matje cured herring; Labrador herring; Klondyked herring; Kipper herring; Kipper; Herron; Herring; Hern; Herning; Golden cure; Fall herring; Cut spiced herring; Cleanplate herring; Bloater; Bismark herring; Bank herring; Baltic herring; Atlantic herring; Digby; Hering)

Synonyms: Clupea alba; Clupea atlanticus; Clupea britannicus; Clupea caledonicus; Clupea cimbricus; Clupea elongata; Clupea frisius; Clupea halec; Clupea harengus atlanticus; Clupea harengus britannicus; Clupea harengus caledonicus; Clupea harengus cimbricus; Clupea harengus frisius; Clupea harengus harengus; Clupea harengus islandicus; Clupea harengus ivernicus; Clupea harengus membras; Clupea harengus norvegivus; Clupea harengus scandicus; Clupea harengus scoticus; Clupea harengus septemtrionalis; Clupea islandicus; Clupea ivernicus; Clupea leachii; Clupea membras; Clupea minima; Clupea norvegivus; Clupea scandicus; Clupea scoticus; Clupea septemtrionalis; Cyprinus esca; Rogenia alba
Language: Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Icelandic; Inuktitut; Italian; Japanese; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Prussian, Old; Russian; Serbian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Attributes

Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous
Speed [3]  0.67 MPH (.3 m/s)

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Norwegian Sea Drainages Norway, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Vänta Litets Grund 37390 Sweden  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Ecosystems

Emblem of

Estonia

Prey / Diet

Acartia bifilosa[4]
Acartia clausi[4]
Acartia longiremis[4]
Acartia tonsa[4]
Aglantha digitale (Pink helmet)[4]
Agonus cataphractus (Pogge)[4]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[4]
Anomalocera patersoni[4]
Apherusa bispinosa[4]
Bathyporeia pelagica[4]
Calanus finmarchicus[4]
Calanus glacialis[4]
Calanus hyperboreus[4]
Candacia armata[4]
Caprella monocera[4]
Carcinus maenas (green crab)[4]
Centropages hamatus[4]
Centropages typicus[4]
Chydorus sphaericus[4]
Ciliata mustela (Rockling)[4]
Clione limacina (Naked sea butterfly)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Corophium crassicorne[4]
Corophium volutator (mud shrimp)[4]
Corycaeus anglicus[4]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[4]
Eurydice pulchra (gewone pissebed)[4]
Eurytemora affinis[4]
Eurytemora hirundoides[4]
Eurytemora velox[4]
Euterpina acutifrons[4]
Evadne nordmanni[4]
Fritillaria borealis[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Gammaropsis maculata[4]
Gastrosaccus sanctus[4]
Gastrosaccus spinifer[4]
Gnathia maxillaris[4]
Hediste diversicolor (veelkleurige zeeduizendpoot)[4]
Hemimysis lamornae[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippolyte varians[4]
Hyperia galba[4]
Isias clavipes[4]
Jassa falcata (Mottled tube-making amphipod)[4]
Labidocera wollastoni[4]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[4]
Limacina retroversa (retrovert pteropod)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Limnocalanus grimaldii[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[4]
Maurolicus muelleri (Silvery lightfish)[4]
Megaluropus agilis[4]
Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Mesopodopsis slabberi[4]
Metridia longa[4]
Metridia lucens[4]
Microcalanus pusillus[4]
Microsetella norvegica[4]
Microstomus kitt (Sweet fluke)[4]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[4]
Mytilus edulis (Blue mussel)[4]
Neomysis integer[6]
Nyctiphanes couchi[4]
Oikopleura dioica[4]
Oithona helgolandica[4]
Oithona similis[4]
Oithona spinirostris[4]
Oncaea borealis[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Paracalanus parvus[4]
Paraeuchaeta norvegica[4]
Parapontella brevicornis[4]
Parasagitta elegans (elegant arrow worm)[4]
Parasagitta setosa[4]
Parathemisto oblivia[4]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[4]
Perioculodes longimanus[4]
Phtisica marina[4]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Praunus flexuosus (chameleon shrimp)[4]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[4]
Pseudocuma longicorne[4]
Schistomysis ornata[4]
Schistomysis spiritus[4]
Siriella armata[4]
Siriella norvegica[4]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[4]
Temora longicornis[4]
Themisto abyssorum[4]
Themisto compressa[4]
Themisto gaudichaudii[5]
Themisto libellula[4]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa longicaudata[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[5]
Tintinnopsis beroidea[4]
Tisbe furcata[4]
Tomopteris helgolandica (Plankton worm)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Urothoe elegans[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pomatoschistus lozanoi (Lozano's goby)1
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)2
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)1

Predators

Alca torda (Razorbill)[4]
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)[7]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[5]
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)[4]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[4]
Astarte arctica (Arctic astarte)[4]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[4]
Aurelia aurita (moon jelly)[4]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[8]
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)[4]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[9]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Brosme brosme (Tusk)[4]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[4]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[10]
Chlidonias albostriatus (Black-fronted Tern)[4]
Chlidonias leucopterus (White-winged Tern)[4]
Chlidonias niger (Black Tern)[4]
Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae (Silver Gull)[4]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Chroicocephalus scopulinus (Red-billed Gull)[4]
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Creagrus furcatus (Swallow-tailed Gull)[4]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[11]
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)[4]
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)[4]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[4]
Eledone cirrhosa (Curled octopus)[4]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[4]
Esox lucius (Jack)[4]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[4]
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)[4]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[12]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[4]
Gelochelidon nilotica (Gull-billed Tern)[4]
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)[13]
Halichoerus grypus (Gray Seal)[4]
Hemitripterus americanus (Wip)[4]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[4]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[4]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Hydrocoloeus minutus (Little Gull)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[4]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[14]
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)[15]
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)[16]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[17]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[18]
Lampris guttatus (Sunfish)[4]
Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)[4]
Larus cachinnans (Yellow-legged Gull)[4]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)[4]
Larus glaucescens (Glaucous-winged Gull)[4]
Larus heermanni (Heermann's Gull)[4]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[4]
Larus livens (Yellow-footed Gull)[4]
Larus marinus (Great Black-backed Gull)[4]
Larus pacificus (Pacific Gull)[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis (whiff)[4]
Lethenteron camtschaticum (Arctic lamprey)[4]
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)[4]
Leucoraja naevus (Cuckoo ray)[4]
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)[4]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[4]
Loligo forbesii (Veined Squid)[4]
Loligo vulgaris (European Squid)[4]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[4]
Lophius piscatorius (Monkfish)[4]
Lycodes frigidus (Glacial eelpout)[19]
Lycodes palearis (Wattled eelpout)[4]
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)[4]
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)[4]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[4]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[4]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius merluccius (Herring hake)[4]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[20]
Molva molva (Ling)[4]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[21]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)[4]
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)[4]
Myoxocephalus scorpius (Short-spined sea scorpion)[4]
Myxine glutinosa (Atlantic hagfish)[4]
Onychoprion anaethetus (Bridled Tern)[4]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[22]
Papasula abbotti (Abbott's Booby)[4]
Pelecanus conspicillatus (Australian Pelican)[4]
Pelecanus crispus (Dalmatian Pelican)[4]
Pelecanus thagus (Peruvian Pelican)[4]
Pelecus cultratus (Sabre carp)[4]
Petromyzon marinus (Eel sucker)[4]
Phaethon rubricauda (Red-tailed Tropicbird)[4]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[23]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax penicillatus (Brandt's Cormorant)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[24]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[25]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[4]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[4]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[4]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[4]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[4]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[26]
Puffinus assimilis (Little Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus auricularis (Townsend's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus carneipes (Flesh-footed Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus huttoni (Hutton's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus lherminieri (Audubon's Shearwater)[4]
Puffinus tenuirostris (Short-tailed Shearwater)[4]
Raja binoculata (Big skate)[4]
Raja clavata (Roker)[4]
Raja montagui (Homelyn ray)[4]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[4]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[27]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[4]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[4]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)[4]
Scophthalmus maximus (Turbot)[4]
Scophthalmus rhombus (Flounder)[4]
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)[4]
Sebastes brevispinis (Silvergray rockfish)[4]
Sebastes mentella (Redfish)[4]
Sebastes norvegicus (Golden redfish)[4]
Sebastes ruberrimus (Yelloweye rockfish)[4]
Somateria mollissima (Common Eider)[4]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[4]
Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus humboldti (Humboldt Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Spheniscus mendiculus (Galapagos Penguin)[4]
Sphyrna zygaena (Smooth hammerhead shark)[5]
Spondyliosoma cantharus (Old wife)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[4]
Stercorarius skua (Great Skua)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[4]
Sternula albifons[28]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Sternula balaenarum (Damara Tern)[4]
Sternula lorata (Peruvian Tern)[4]
Sternula nereis (Fairy Tern)[4]
Sternula saundersi (Saunders's Tern)[4]
Sternula superciliaris (Yellow-billed Tern)[4]
Sula dactylatra (Masked Booby)[4]
Sula granti (Nazca Booby)[4]
Sula nebouxii (Blue-footed Booby)[4]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus craveri (Craveri's Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus's Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalassarche carteri (Indian Yellow-nosed Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bengalensis (Lesser Crested Tern)[4]
Thalasseus bergii (Swift Tern)[4]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[4]
Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[4]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[29]
Todarodes sagittatus (European flying squid)[30]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[4]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[4]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[4]
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)[4]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[31]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[4]
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)[4]
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)[4]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[4]
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)[4]
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)[4]
Zeus faber (European john dory)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[32]
Aponurus laguncula[32]
Ascaris clupeae <Unverified Name>[32]
Ascaris clupearum <Unverified Name>[32]
Ascaris gracilescens <Unverified Name>[32]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[32]
Brachyphallus crenatus[32]
Contracaecum osculatum[32]
Corynosoma semerme[32]
Corynosoma strumosum[32]
Corynosoma villosum[32]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[32]
Cryptocotyle jejuna[4]
Cryptocotyle lingua[32]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[32]
Dactylogyrus tetraradiatus <Unverified Name>[32]
Derogenes varicus[32]
Diplostomum spathaceum[32]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis[32]
Echinorhynchus gadi[32]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[32]
Eustoma rotundatum <Unverified Name>[32]
Grillotia erinaceus[32]
Gyrodactyloides andriaschewi[32]
Gyrodactylus harengi[32]
Hemiurus communis[32]
Hemiurus levinseni[32]
Hemiurus luehei[32]
Hemiurus raabei <Unverified Name>[32]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[32]
Lacistorhynchus dollfusi[32]
Lacistorhynchus tenuis[32]
Lecithaster confusus[32]
Lecithaster gibbosus[32]
Mazocraes alosae[32]
Nybelinia surmenicola[32]
Opechona bacillaris[32]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[32]
Parahemiurus merus[32]
Parancyrocephaloides indicus <Unverified Name>[32]
Podocotyle atomon[32]
Polymorphus phippsi[32]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[32]
Pseudacanthocotyloides heterocotyle <Unverified Name>[32]
Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle[32]
Pseudobacciger harengulae[32]
Pseudobacciger manteri[32]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[32]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[32]
Rhadinorhynchus trachuri[32]
Scolex bothriosimplex <Unverified Name>[32]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[32]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[32]
Serrasentis sagittifer[32]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Distribution

North Atlantic: northern Bay of Biscay northward to Iceland and southern Greenland, eastward to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, including the Baltic; southwestern Greenland and Labrador southward to South Carolina.;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 3"Pelagic Fishes and Their Macroplankton Prey: Swimming Speeds", Sergey M. Ignatyev, Proceedings • Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-97-01, 1997, p. 31-39 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 6The mysid-feeding guild of demersal fishes in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde estuary, K. Hostens and J. Mees, Journal of Fish Biology (1999) 55, 704-719 7Feeding and Food Consumption by the Barents Sea Skates, A.V. Dolgov, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 35: 495–503 8Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002, G.J. Pierce, M.B. Santos, R.J. Reid, I.A.P. Patterson and H.M. Ross, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. (2004), 84, 1241-1244 9Marbled Murrelet Food Habits and Prey Ecology, Esther E. Burkett, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995., Chap 22, p. 223-246 10Diving depths, diet, and underwater foraging of Rhinoceros Auklets in British Columbia, Alan E. Burger, Rory P. Wilson, Don Garnier and Marie-Pierre T. Wilson, Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol. 71: 2528-2540 (1993) 11Estimated Fish Consumption by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata), in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, M. O. Hammill, C. Lydersen, K. M. Kovacs and B. Sjare, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 249–257 (1997) 12HABITAT USE, DIET AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF TUFTED PUFFINS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA, John F. Piatt, Daniel D. Roby, Laird Henkel and Kriss Neuman, Northwestern Naturalist 78:102-109 (1997) 13STOMACH CONTENTS OF LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALES (GLOBICEPHALA MELAS) STRANDED ON THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC COAST, Damon P. Gannon, Andrew J. Read, James E. Craddock, James G. Mead, MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 13(3):405-418 (July 1997) 14Fish prey spectrum of short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) at Newfoundland, Earl G. Dawe, Edgar L. Dalley, and Wayne W. Lidster, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54(Suppl. 1): 200–208 (1997). 15Food habits of Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) off the coast of New England, James E. Craddock, Pamela T. Polloni, Brett Hayward, Frederick Wenzel, Fish. Bull. 107:384–394 (2009) 16Seasonal distribution of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) in UK waters with new information on diet and habitat use, Sarah J. Canning, M. Begoña Santos, Robert J. Reid, Peter G.H. Evans, Richard C. Sabin, Nick Bailey and Graham J. Pierce, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2008, 88(6), 1159–1166 17Occurrence, photo-identification and prey of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens) in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada 1984-1998, Alexandra Morton, Marine Mammal Science Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80-93. Jan 2000 18Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic, W. N. Joyce, S. E. Campana, L. J. Natanson, N. E. Kohler, H. L. Pratt Jr, and C. F. Jensen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1263–1269. 2002 19Trophic ecology of deep-water fishes associated with the continental slope of the eastern Norwegian Sea, Otte Bjelland, Odd Aksel Bergstad, Jon Egil Skjæraasen & Kenneth Meland, Sarsia 85:101-117 – 2000 20Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea, Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino, and Erik Olsen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483–493 21Annual variation in diets, feeding locations and foraging behaviour of gannets in the North Sea: flexibility, consistency and constraint, K. C. Hamer, E. M. Humphreys, S. Garthe, J. Hennicke, G. Peters, D. Grémillet, R. A. Phillips, M. P. Harris, S. Wanless, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338: 295–305, 2007 22Diet of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandica) in Divisions 2J and 3KL During 1991–93, J. W. Lawson, G. B. Stenson and D. G. McKinnon, NAFO Sci. Coun. 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