Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Clupeiformes > Clupeidae > Clupea > Clupea harengus

Clupea harengus (Yawling; Whitebait; Summer herring; Sugar cured fish; Spring herring; Split cure herring; Split; Soused herring; Silver cured herring; Sild; Shore herring; Sea stick; Sea herring; Sea Atlantic herring; Rounder; Red herring; Protestant; Pickling; Pickled herring; Pearl essence; Oriental cure; Norwegian sloe; Norwegian silver herring; Norwegian milker; Norwegian herring; Norwegian cured herring; Newcastle kipper; Mustard herring; Murman herring; Milker herring; Mesh herring; Melker; Mediterranean cure; Mattie; Matje cured herring; Labrador herring; Klondyked herring; Kipper herring; Kipper; Herron; Herring; Hern; Herning; Golden cure; Fall herring; Cut spiced herring; Cleanplate herring; Bloater; Bismark herring; Bank herring; Baltic herring; Atlantic herring; Digby; Hering)

Synonyms: Clupea alba; Clupea atlanticus; Clupea britannicus; Clupea caledonicus; Clupea cimbricus; Clupea elongata; Clupea frisius; Clupea halec; Clupea harengus atlanticus; Clupea harengus britannicus; Clupea harengus caledonicus; Clupea harengus cimbricus; Clupea harengus frisius; Clupea harengus harengus; Clupea harengus islandicus; Clupea harengus ivernicus; Clupea harengus membras; Clupea harengus norvegivus; Clupea harengus scandicus; Clupea harengus scoticus; Clupea harengus septemtrionalis; Clupea islandicus; Clupea ivernicus; Clupea leachii; Clupea membras; Clupea minima; Clupea norvegivus; Clupea scandicus; Clupea scoticus; Clupea septemtrionalis; Cyprinus esca; Rogenia alba
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Wikipedia Abstract

Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) is a herring in the family Clupeidae. It is one of the most abundant fish species on earth. Atlantic herrings can be found on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, congregating in large schools. They can grow up to 45 centimetres in length and weigh more than 0.5 kilograms . They feed on copepods, krill and small fish, while their natural predators are seals, whales, cod and other larger fish.
View Wikipedia Record: Clupea harengus


Female Maturity [1]  3 years
Male Maturity [1]  3 years
Maximum Longevity [1]  22 years
Migration [2]  Oceanodromous
Speed [3]  0.67 MPH (.3 m/s)

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Carmarthen Bay and Estuaries/ Bae Caerfyrddin ac Aberoedd 163340 Wales, United Kingdom
Fal and Helford 15785 England, United Kingdom    
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Pen Llyn a`r Sarnau/ Lleyn Peninsula and the Sarnau 360832 Wales, United Kingdom
St Kilda 62932 Scotland, United Kingdom    
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
Vänta Litets Grund 37390 Sweden  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  


Emblem of


Prey / Diet

Meganyctiphanes norvegica (Norwegian krill)[4]
Neomysis integer[5]
Themisto gaudichaudii[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)1
Eutrigla gurnardus (Grey gurnard)1
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)1
Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Leach's Storm-Petrel)1
Pollachius virens (Sillock)1
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)2
Scyliorhinus canicula (Small-spotted catshark)1
Sterna paradisaea (Arctic Tern)1
Trisopterus luscus (Whiting-pout)1


Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)[6]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[4]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[7]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[8]
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)[9]
Cystophora cristata (Hooded Seal)[10]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[11]
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)[12]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[13]
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)[14]
Lagenorhynchus albirostris (White-beaked Dolphin)[15]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[16]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[17]
Lycodes frigidus (Glacial eelpout)[18]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[4]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[19]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[20]
Pagophilus groenlandicus (Harp Seal)[21]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[22]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[23]
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)[24]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[25]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[26]
Sphyrna zygaena (Smooth hammerhead shark)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Sternula albifons[27]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[28]
Todarodes sagittatus (European flying squid)[29]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[30]


Parasitized by 
Anisakis simplex[31]
Aponurus laguncula[31]
Ascaris clupeae <Unverified Name>[31]
Ascaris clupearum <Unverified Name>[31]
Ascaris gracilescens <Unverified Name>[31]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[31]
Brachyphallus crenatus[31]
Contracaecum osculatum[31]
Corynosoma semerme[31]
Corynosoma strumosum[31]
Corynosoma villosum[31]
Cosmocephalus obvelatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Cryptocotyle lingua[31]
Cystidicola farionis <Unverified Name>[31]
Dactylogyrus tetraradiatus <Unverified Name>[31]
Derogenes varicus[31]
Diplostomum spathaceum[31]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis[31]
Echinorhynchus gadi[31]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[31]
Eustoma rotundatum <Unverified Name>[31]
Grillotia erinaceus[31]
Gyrodactyloides andriaschewi[31]
Gyrodactylus harengi[31]
Hemiurus communis[31]
Hemiurus levinseni[31]
Hemiurus luehei[31]
Hemiurus raabei <Unverified Name>[31]
Hysterothylacium auctum <Unverified Name>[31]
Lacistorhynchus dollfusi[31]
Lacistorhynchus tenuis[31]
Lecithaster confusus[31]
Lecithaster gibbosus[31]
Mazocraes alosae[31]
Nybelinia surmenicola[31]
Opechona bacillaris[31]
Paracuaria tridentata <Unverified Name>[31]
Parahemiurus merus[31]
Parancyrocephaloides indicus <Unverified Name>[31]
Podocotyle atomon[31]
Polymorphus phippsi[31]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[31]
Pseudacanthocotyloides heterocotyle <Unverified Name>[31]
Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle[31]
Pseudobacciger harengulae[31]
Pseudobacciger manteri[31]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[31]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[31]
Rhadinorhynchus trachuri[31]
Scolex bothriosimplex <Unverified Name>[31]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[31]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[31]
Serrasentis sagittifer[31]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Oresundsakvariet (Oresund Aquarium)
Rotterdam Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr


North Atlantic: northern Bay of Biscay northward to Iceland and southern Greenland, eastward to Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, including the Baltic; southwestern Greenland and Labrador southward to South Carolina.;



Species recognized by , 2014-05-19, FishBase in Catalog of Life 2011
Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 3"Pelagic Fishes and Their Macroplankton Prey: Swimming Speeds", Sergey M. Ignatyev, Proceedings • Forage Fishes in Marine Ecosystems, Alaska Sea Grant College Program, AK-SG-97-01, 1997, p. 31-39 4Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 5The mysid-feeding guild of demersal fishes in the brackish zone of the Westerschelde estuary, K. Hostens and J. Mees, Journal of Fish Biology (1999) 55, 704-719 6Feeding and Food Consumption by the Barents Sea Skates, A.V. Dolgov, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 35: 495–503 7Diet of minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata in Scottish (UK) waters with notes on strandings of this species in Scotland 1992-2002, G.J. Pierce, M.B. Santos, R.J. Reid, I.A.P. Patterson and H.M. Ross, J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. (2004), 84, 1241-1244 8Marbled Murrelet Food Habits and Prey Ecology, Esther E. Burkett, USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-152. 1995., Chap 22, p. 223-246 9Diving depths, diet, and underwater foraging of Rhinoceros Auklets in British Columbia, Alan E. Burger, Rory P. Wilson, Don Garnier and Marie-Pierre T. Wilson, Canadian Journal of Zoology Vol. 71: 2528-2540 (1993) 10Estimated Fish Consumption by Hooded Seals (Cystophora cristata), in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, M. O. Hammill, C. Lydersen, K. M. Kovacs and B. Sjare, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 22: 249–257 (1997) 11HABITAT USE, DIET AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF TUFTED PUFFINS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA, John F. Piatt, Daniel D. Roby, Laird Henkel and Kriss Neuman, Northwestern Naturalist 78:102-109 (1997) 12STOMACH CONTENTS OF LONG-FINNED PILOT WHALES (GLOBICEPHALA MELAS) STRANDED ON THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC COAST, Damon P. Gannon, Andrew J. Read, James E. Craddock, James G. Mead, MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, 13(3):405-418 (July 1997) 13Fish prey spectrum of short-finned squid (Illex illecebrosus) at Newfoundland, Earl G. Dawe, Edgar L. Dalley, and Wayne W. Lidster, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 54(Suppl. 1): 200–208 (1997). 14Food habits of Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) off the coast of New England, James E. Craddock, Pamela T. Polloni, Brett Hayward, Frederick Wenzel, Fish. Bull. 107:384–394 (2009) 15Seasonal distribution of white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) in UK waters with new information on diet and habitat use, Sarah J. Canning, M. Begoña Santos, Robert J. Reid, Peter G.H. Evans, Richard C. Sabin, Nick Bailey and Graham J. Pierce, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 2008, 88(6), 1159–1166 16Occurrence, photo-identification and prey of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens) in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada 1984-1998, Alexandra Morton, Marine Mammal Science Vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 80-93. Jan 2000 17Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic, W. N. Joyce, S. E. Campana, L. J. Natanson, N. E. Kohler, H. L. Pratt Jr, and C. F. Jensen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1263–1269. 2002 18Trophic ecology of deep-water fishes associated with the continental slope of the eastern Norwegian Sea, Otte Bjelland, Odd Aksel Bergstad, Jon Egil Skjæraasen & Kenneth Meland, Sarsia 85:101-117 – 2000 19Trophic ecology of blue whiting in the Barents Sea, Andrey V. Dolgov, Edda Johannesen, Mikko Heino, and Erik Olsen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 483–493 20Annual variation in diets, feeding locations and foraging behaviour of gannets in the North Sea: flexibility, consistency and constraint, K. C. Hamer, E. M. Humphreys, S. Garthe, J. Hennicke, G. Peters, D. Grémillet, R. A. Phillips, M. P. Harris, S. Wanless, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 338: 295–305, 2007 21Diet of Harp Seals (Phoca groenlandica) in Divisions 2J and 3KL During 1991–93, J. W. Lawson, G. B. Stenson and D. G. McKinnon, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 21: 143–154 (1994) 22Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 23The harbour seal Phoca vitulina as a predator in the Skagerrak. Haerkoenen, T | Heide-Joergensen, M-P, Ophelia. Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 191-207 1991 24Summer Diet of the Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in the Estuary and the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Pierre-Michel Fontaine, Mike O. Hammill, Cyrille Barrette, and Michael C. Kingsley, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51(1): 172–178 (1994) 25A Quantitative Assessment of the Diet of the Blue Shark (Prionace glauca) off Nova Scotia, Canada, Meaghen E. McCord and Steven E. Campana, J. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci., Vol. 32: 57-63 26Hansson, S., Karlsson, L., Ikonen, E., Christensen, O., Mitans, A., Uzars, D., Petersson, E. and Ragnarsson, B. (2001), "Stomach analyses of Baltic salmon from 1959–1962 and 1994–1997: possible relations between diet and yolk-sac-fry mortality (M74)". Journal of Fish Biology, 58: 1730–1745 27Perrow, M.R.; Gilroy, J.J.; Skeate, E.R.; Tomlinson, M.L. (2011). "Effects of the construction of Scorby Sands offshore wind farm on the prey base of Little tern Sternula albifons at its most important UK colony". Marine Pollution Bulletin, 62(8), 1661-1670 28Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf, Bradford C. Chase, Fishery Bulletin 100 no2 168-80 Ap 2002 29CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 30An estimate of summer food consumption of six seabird species in Iceland, K. Lilliendahl and J. Solmundsson, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 54: 624–630. 1997 31Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Natura 2000, UK data: © Crown copyright and database right [2010] All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100017955
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Institution information provided by International Species Information System - May 2011