Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Esociformes > Esocidae > Esox > Esox lucius

Esox lucius (Jack; Northern pike; Pike; Pickerel; Jackfish; Great northern pike; Great northern pickerel; Great Lakes pike; Common pike; American pike; Wolf; Snake)

Synonyms: Esox boreus; Esox estor; Esox lucioides; Esox lucius atrox; Esox lucius bergi; Esox reichertii baicalensis; Luccius vorax; Lucius lucius; Trematina foveolata
Language: Alutiiq; Bulgarian; Cree; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Estonian; Finnish; French; Gaelic, Irish; German; Greek; Hungarian; Icelandic; Inuktitut; Italian; Japanese; Kirghiz; Latvian; Lithuanian; Mandarin Chinese; Norwegian; Persian; Polish; Portuguese; Prussian, Old; Romanian; Russian; Serbian; Slovak; Slovenian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The northern pike (Esox lucius), known simply as a pike in Britain, Ireland, most of Canada, and most parts of the United States (also called jackfish or simply "northern" in the U.S. Upper Midwest and in Manitoba), is a species of carnivorous fish of the genus Esox (the pikes). They are typical of brackish and fresh waters of the Northern Hemisphere (i.e. holarctic in distribution).
View Wikipedia Record: Esox lucius

Invasive Species

The northern pike, Esox lucius, is a predatory freshwater fish that is an opportunistic feeder. It is common in lakes, basins and rivers in the United States, Canada, central Asia, Siberia and many places in Europe. It is also present in the Aral, Arctic, Baltic, Barents, Black, Caspian, North and White seas and Atlantic basins. E. lucius exhibits genetic differentiation among its worldwide populations.
View ISSG Record: Esox lucius


Adult Weight [3]  34.44 lbs (15.62 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  3 years
Male Maturity [3]  2 years 5 months
Diet [1]  Carnivore
Adult Length [2]  4.9 feet (150 cm)
Brood Dispersal [2]  In the open
Brood Egg Substrate [2]  Phytophils
Brood Guarder [2]  No
Litter Size [2]  600,000
Maximum Longevity [2]  30 years
Migration [4]  Potamodromous
Water Biome [1]  Lakes and Ponds, Rivers and Streams


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Alaska & Canada Pacific Coastal Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Appalachian Piedmont United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Bonneville United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Cantabric Coast - Languedoc France, Spain Palearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Central Prairie United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Chesapeake Bay United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Colorado Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Columbia Glaciated Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Columbia Unglaciated United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Gila Mexico, United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Lahontan United States Nearctic Xeric Freshwaters and Endorheic Basins    
Middle Missouri United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Northeast US & Southeast Canada Atlantic Drainages Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Northern Baltic Drainages Denmark, Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden Palearctic Polar Freshwaters    
Ozark Highlands United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Sacramento - San Joaquin United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Southern Baltic Lowlands Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
St. Lawrence Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    
Teays - Old Ohio United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Tennessee United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Danube Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Mississippi United States Nearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    
Upper Missouri Canada, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
Upper Rio Grande - Bravo Mexico, United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    
US Southern Plains United States Nearctic Temperate Upland Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aggtelek Biosphere Reserve National Park II 59233 Hungary
Alam-Pedja 85235 Estonia  
Algonquin Provincial Park IV 1868802 Ontario, Canada
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Ib 12402936 Alaska, United States
Aree delle risorgive di Viarolo, Bacini di Torrile, Fascia golenale del Po 6479 Italy  
Astrakhanskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 167827 Astrakhan, Russia
Baikalskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 458883 Russia  
Baraccone (confluenza Po - Dora Baltea) 3889 Italy  
Barguzinskiy Biosphere Reserve Zapovednik Ia 924970 Buryatia, Russia
Basso Taro 2483 Italy  
Belovezhskaya Pushcha Biosphere Reserve National Park II 218515 Belarus
Berchtesgaden Alps National Park II 51433 Germany
Berezinskiy Zapovednik State Nature Reserve Ia 209113 Belarus  
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve Ib 2823882 Alaska, United States
Berwyn a Mynyddoedd de Clwyd/ Berwyn and South Clwyd Mountains 67265 Wales, United Kingdom
Bialowieza National Park II 11126 Poland
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Bentivoglio, S. Pietro in Casale, Malalbergo e Baricella 7967 Italy  
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Budrio e Minerbio 2162 Italy  
Biotopi e Ripristini ambientali di Medicina e Molinella 11085 Italy  
Boschi del Ticino 50788 Italy  
Breckland 18652 England, United Kingdom
Canyonlands National Park II 335430 Utah, United States
Cerová vrchovina a Rimavská kotlina 76986 Slovakia  
Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve 9859505 New York, Vermont, United States  
Darvinsky Zapovednik Ia 278421 Yaroslavl, Vologda, Russia
Drei Gleichen 2194 Germany  
Elstertal zwischen Greiz und Wünschendorf 3959 Germany  
Fannich Hills 23816 Scotland, United Kingdom
Fiume Po - tratto vercellese alessandrino 34859 Italy  
Fiume Po da Rio Boriacco a Bosco Ospizio 14018 Italy  
Flusslandschaft Elbe Biosphere Reserve 925242 Germany  
Foce dell'Isonzo - Isola della Cona 6593 Italy  
Glen Tanar 10329 Scotland, United Kingdom
Grasslands National Park II 128635 Saskatchewan, Canada
Greenwater Provincial Park II 11019 Ontario, Canada
Hortobágy National Park II 140004 Hungary  
Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore II 8272 Indiana, United States
Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve Ib 571799 Michigan, United States
Ivvavik National Park II 2382752 Yukon, Canada
Jasper National Park II 2776809 Alberta, Canada
Kiskunsag Biosphere Reserve II 54598 Hungary  
Kivach Zapovednik IV 26885 Karelia, Russia
Kluane National Park and Reserve National Park Reserve II 5463436 Yukon, Canada
Kostomukshsky Zapovednik Ia 117269 Karelia, Russia
La Mauricie National Park II 131706 Quebec, Canada
Lago Trasimeno 35838 Italy  
Lago di Piediluco - Monte Maro 2864 Italy  
Lake Torne Area Biosphere Reserve 238457 Sweden  
Laplandskiy Biosphere Reserve 757114 Russia  
Luberon Regional Nature Park V 406572 France  
Moyenne vallée de l'Oise 13902 France  
Nahanni National Park Reserve II 1309627 Northwest Territories, Canada
Niagara Escarpment Biosphere Reserve 470167 Ontario, Canada  
Oberlausitzer Heide - und Teichlandschaft Nature Reserve IV 32467 Germany  
Okskiy Biosphere Reserve 190748 Russia  
Parco Regionale Campo dei Fiori 3207 Italy  
Parco Regionale Oglio Sud 9941 Italy  
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore II 67888 Michigan, United States
Po da Albaredo Arnaboldi ad Arena Po 2241 Italy  
Point Pelee National Park II 5764 Ontario, Canada
Polana Biosphere Reserve 50311 Slovakia  
Polar Bear Provincial Park 5502026 Ontario, Canada
Prince Albert National Park II 976762 Saskatchewan, Canada
Pukaskwa National Park II 459860 Ontario, Canada
Reserve Nationale de Camargue Biosphere Reserve 32232 France  
Reserve Srebarna Managed Reserve IV 2294 Bulgaria  
Reserve de la Biosphere des Vosges du Nord Biosphere Reserve 301469 France  
Riding Mountain Biosphere Reserve II 762028 Manitoba, Canada
Riserva Regionale Lanca di Gerole 2916 Italy  
River Derwent and Bassenthwaite Lake 4529 England, United Kingdom
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve 319164 Germany
Spinadesco 2567 Italy  
Spreewald Biosphere Reserve 117355 Germany  
Srebarna 3579 Bulgaria  
Strathglass Complex 58277 Scotland, United Kingdom
Studenetz 69315 Bulgaria  
The Broads 14554 England, United Kingdom  
The New Forest 72309 England, United Kingdom
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast 266284 England, United Kingdom
Thursley, Ash, Pirbright and Chobham 12696 England, United Kingdom
Trebon Basin Protected Landscape Area V 173393 Czech Republic  
Tsentral'no-Lesnoy Biosphere Reserve Ia 62630 Russia  
Tsentral'no-Sibirskiy Biosphere Reserve Ia 2521510 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
Tuktut Nogait National Park II 5761538 Northwest Territories, Canada
Ubsunurskaya Kotlovina (Ubsunur Depression) Zapovednik Ia 798640 Tuva, Russia
Upper Miss. River Nat'l Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge VI 25823 Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, United States
Valle del Tevere: Laghi di Corbara - Alviano 17989 Italy  
Valli di Argenta 7178 Italy  
Viadana, Portiolo, San Benedetto Po e Ostiglia 17848 Italy  
Visimskiy Zapovednik Biosphere Reserve 443816 Russia  
Voronezhskiy Biosphere Reserve 95835 Russia  
Voyageurs National Park II 177960 Minnesota, United States
Vuntut National Park II 1076795 Yukon, Canada
Waddensea of Lower Saxony Biosphere Reserve 539522 Germany  
Wapusk National Park II 2614324 Manitoba, Canada
Waterton Biosphere Reserve II 121459 Alberta, Canada
Werra bis Treffurt mit Zuflüssen 5585 Germany  
Wood Buffalo National Park II 11038545 Alberta, Canada

Emblem of

North Dakota

Prey / Diet

Abramis brama (Bream)[5]
Acipenser stellatus (Stellate Sturgeon)[5]
Alburnus alburnus (Bleak)[5]
Alphitobius diaperinus (lesser mealworm)[5]
Amphinemura sulcicollis (Toothed Brown Stonefly)[5]
Anabolia nervosa (Quiverfly)[5]
Anguilla anguilla (River eel)[5]
Astacus astacus (European crayfish)[5]
Baetis fuscatus[5]
Baetis rhodani (Large dark olive)[5]
Baetis scambus[5]
Baetis vernus[5]
Barbatula barbatula (Stone loach)[5]
Blicca bjoerkna (White bream)[5]
Bosmina longirostris[5]
Caenis rivulorum[5]
Capnia vidua[5]
Carassius carassius (Crucian carp)[5]
Catostomus commersonii (White sucker)[6]
Chaetopteryx villosa[5]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[5]
Clupeonella cultriventris (Azovtyulka)[5]
Coregonus albula (European whitefish)[5]
Coregonus clupeaformis (Common whitefish)[5]
Coregonus lavaretus (Houting)[5]
Cottus gobio (Bullhead)[5]
Cyprinella spiloptera (Spotfin shiner)[5]
Cyprinus carpio (Common carp)[5]
Dallia pectoralis (Alaska blackfish)[7]
Diplectrona felix[5]
Dorosoma cepedianum (American gizzard shad)[5]
Ecdyonurus dispar[5]
Erpobdella octoculata[5]
Esox lucius (Jack)[5]
Gammarus pulex[8]
Gasterosteus aculeatus (Alaskan stickleback)[5]
Gobio gobio (Gudgeon)[5]
Gymnocephalus cernua (Ruffe)[5]
Halesus radiatus[5]
Hydropsyche contubernalis[5]
Hydropsyche fulvipes[5]
Hydropsyche instabilis[5]
Hydropsyche pellucidula (Grey Flag Caddisfly)[5]
Isoperla grammatica[5]
Keratella quadrata[5]
Labidesthes sicculus (Brook silverside)[5]
Larus californicus (California Gull)[5]
Lepomis gibbosus (kiver)[5]
Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill)[5]
Leuciscus idus (Ide)[5]
Leuciscus leuciscus (Dace)[5]
Leuctra brunnea[5]
Leuctra fusca[5]
Leuctra geniculata[5]
Leuctra hippopus[5]
Leuctra inermis (Needlefly)[5]
Leuctra moselyi[5]
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)[6]
Micropterus salmoides (Northern largemouth bass)[5]
Microtus richardsoni (water vole)[5]
Mystriophis rostellatus (West coast snake-eel)[5]
Nemoura cambrica[5]
Nemoura cinerea (Small Brown Stonefly)[5]
Nemurella pictetii[5]
Nigrobaetis niger[5]
Notropis hudsonius (Sucking carp)[6]
Oreodytes davisii[5]
Oreodytes sanmarkii[5]
Osmerus eperlanus (European smelt)[5]
Perca flavescens (Yellow perch)[6]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[5]
Phoxinus phoxinus (Minnow)[5]
Pimephales notatus (Bluntnose minnow)[5]
Platichthys flesus (North Atlantic flounder)[5]
Plectrocnemia conspersa[5]
Plectrocnemia geniculata[5]
Polycentropus flavomaculatus[5]
Polycentropus kingi[5]
Pomoxis annularis (Calicos bass)[5]
Procambarus clarkii (red swamp crawfish)[5]
Protonemura meyeri[5]
Pseudocalanus elongatus[5]
Rhithrogena semicolorata[5]
Rhyacophila dorsalis[5]
Rhyacophila fasciata[5]
Rhyacophila obliterata[5]
Rutilus rutilus (Roach)[5]
Salaria fluviatilis (Freshwater blenny)[5]
Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon)[5]
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)[5]
Sander lucioperca (Pike-perch)[5]
Sander vitreus (Walleye)[5]
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Red-eye)[5]
Sericostoma personatum (Welshman's Button Caddisfly)[5]
Serratella ignita[5]
Silurus glanis (Danubian wels)[5]
Squalius cephalus (European chub)[5]
Sympetrum corruptum (variegated meadowhawk)[5]
Thymallus thymallus (Grayling)[5]
Tinca tinca (Tench)[5]
Vimba vimba (Vimba bream)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Delphinapterus leucas (Beluga)1
Lontra canadensis (northern river otter)1
Lota lota (Thin-tailed burbot)2
Mergellus albellus (Smew)1
Micropterus dolomieu (Smallmouth bass)1
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)1
Oncorhynchus mykiss (redband trout)1
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)1
Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (American White Pelican)1
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)1
Salmo trutta (Brown trout)1
Salvelinus namaycush (American lake char)1
Sander vitreus (Walleye)1
Stenodus leucichthys (Sheefish)1
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)2


Chlidonias hybrida (Whiskered Tern)[9]
Ciconia nigra (Black Stork)[10]
Esox lucius (Jack)[5]
Haliaeetus albicilla (White-tailed Eagle)[10]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]
Hiodon alosoides (Yellow herring)[5]
Ichthyomyzon castaneus (Chestnut lamprey)[5]
Ichthyomyzon unicuspis (Silver lamprey)[5]
Mergellus albellus (Smew)[10]
Mergus squamatus (Scaly-sided Merganser)[10]
Pandion haliaetus (Osprey)[5]
Perca fluviatilis (River perch)[5]
Petromyzon marinus (Eel sucker)[5]
Silurus glanis (Danubian wels)[5]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[5]


Parasitized by 
Acanthocephalus anguillae[11]
Acanthocephalus clavula[11]
Acanthocephalus dirus[11]
Acanthocephalus lucii[11]
Allocreadium isoporum[11]
Ancyrocephalus paradoxus[11]
Anguillicola crassus <Unverified Name>[11]
Anisakis schupakovi <Unverified Name>[11]
Apophallus muehlingi[11]
Apophallus venustus[11]
Ascocotyle coleostoma[11]
Asymphylodora kubanicum[11]
Azygia angusticauda[11]
Azygia longa[11]
Azygia lucii[11]
Azygia mirabilis[11]
Azygia robusta[11]
Bothriocephalus cuspidatus[11]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[11]
Bucephalus polymorphus[11]
Bunodera luciopercae[11]
Camallanus lacustris[11]
Camallanus oxycephalus <Unverified Name>[11]
Camallanus truncatus[11]
Caryophyllaeus laticeps <Unverified Name>[11]
Centrovarium lobotes[11]
Clinostomum complanatum[11]
Corynosoma semerme[11]
Corynosoma strumosum[11]
Cotylurus platycephalus <Unverified Name>[11]
Crepidostomum cooperi[11]
Crepidostomum farionis[11]
Cucullanellus minutus <Unverified Name>[11]
Cucullanus truttae <Unverified Name>[11]
Cyathocephalus truncatus[11]
Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum <Unverified Name>[11]
Cystidicoloides tenuissima <Unverified Name>[11]
Dactylogyrus auriculatus[11]
Dactylogyrus robustus[11]
Desportesius brevicaudatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Dibothriocephalus latus[11]
Dioctophyme renale[11]
Diplodiscus subclavatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomulum scheuringi <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum chromatophorum[11]
Diplostomum helveticum[11]
Diplostomum indistinctum <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum paraspathaceum[11]
Diplostomum parviventosum <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum pseudobaeri <Unverified Name>[11]
Diplostomum rutili[11]
Diplostomum spathaceum[11]
Diplostomum volvens[11]
Diplozoon paradoxum[11]
Distomum tereticolle <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinorhynchus angustatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Echinorhynchus bothniensis[11]
Echinorhynchus gadi[11]
Echinorhynchus lateralis[11]
Echinorhynchus leidyi[11]
Echinorhynchus salmonis[11]
Echinorhynchus truttae[11]
Esocinema bohemicum <Unverified Name>[11]
Eubothrium crassum[11]
Eustrongylides excisus <Unverified Name>[11]
Eustrongylides mergorum <Unverified Name>[11]
Glaridacris catostomi <Unverified Name>[11]
Gyrodactylus lucii[11]
Hemiurus communis[11]
Hemiurus luehei[11]
Hysterothylacium brachyurum <Unverified Name>[11]
Ichthyocotylurus metacercaria <Unverified Name>[11]
Ichthyocotylurus pileatus[11]
Ichthyocotylurus platycephalus[11]
Leptorhynchoides thecatus[11]
Ligula intestinalis[11]
Maritrema obstipum <Unverified Name>[11]
Metagonimus yokogawai[11]
Neascus brevicaudatum <Unverified Name>[11]
Neascus musculicola <Unverified Name>[11]
Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus[11]
Neoechinorhynchus rutili[11]
Neoechinorhynchus strigosus[11]
Neoechinorhynchus tenellus[11]
Neoechinorhynchus tumidus[11]
Nicolla skrjabini[11]
Paracoenogonimus ovatus[11]
Philometra abdominalis <Unverified Name>[11]
Philometra obturans <Unverified Name>[11]
Philometra rischta <Unverified Name>[11]
Phyllodistomum folium[11]
Phyllodistomum pseudofolium <Unverified Name>[11]
Phyllodistomum simile[11]
Phyllodistomum superbum <Unverified Name>[11]
Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli[11]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[11]
Posthodiplostomum brevicaudatum[11]
Posthodiplostomum cuticola[11]
Proteocephalus ambiguus <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus ambloplitis <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus cernuae <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus esocis <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus exiguus[11]
Proteocephalus longicollis[11]
Proteocephalus percae[11]
Proteocephalus pinguis <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus stizostethi <Unverified Name>[11]
Proteocephalus torulosus[11]
Proteocephalus tumidocollus <Unverified Name>[11]
Pseudoechinorhynchus borealis <Unverified Name>[11]
Raphidascaris acus <Unverified Name>[11]
Rhabdochona denudata[11]
Sanguinicola volgensis[11]
Schistocephalus solidus[11]
Schyzocotyle acheilognathi[11]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[11]
Sphaerostomum bramae <Unverified Name>[11]
Sphaerostomum globiporum <Unverified Name>[11]
Spinitectus carolini <Unverified Name>[11]
Spinitectus gracilis <Unverified Name>[11]
Spiroxys contorta <Unverified Name>[11]
Sterliadochona tenuissima <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetracotyle echinata <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetracotyle percae-fluviatilis <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetracotyle variegatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetraonchus alaskensis[11]
Tetraonchus cernuae <Unverified Name>[11]
Tetraonchus monenteron[11]
Triaenophorus crassus[11]
Triaenophorus lucii <Unverified Name>[11]
Triaenophorus meridionalis <Unverified Name>[11]
Triaenophorus nodulosus[11]
Triaenophorus procerus <Unverified Name>[11]
Triaenophorus robustus <Unverified Name>[11]
Triaenophorus tricuspidatus <Unverified Name>[11]
Tylodelphys clavata[11]
Tylodelphys podicipina[11]
Uvulifer ambloplitis <Unverified Name>[11]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Biodome de Montreal
Budapest Zool.& Botanical Garden
John G. Shedd Aquarium
Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens
Minnesota Zoological Garden
Museum de Besancon
Nat'l Mississippi River Museum & Aquar
Natural History Museum of Adirondacks
Ouwehand Zoo
Universeum Science Center
Wonders of Wildlife Museum
Wroclaw Zoo, LLC

Range Map

Africa-Inland Waters; Alaska (USA); Algeria; America, North - Inland waters; Amudar'ya; Armenia; Asia - Inland waters; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northeast; Azerbaijan; Azores Islands; Baltic Sea; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Canada; Caspian Sea; China; Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska, USA (Ref. 5723). Eurasia: Caspian, Black, Baltic, White, Barents, Arctic, North and Aral Seas and Atlantic basins, southwest to Adour drainage; Mediterranean basin in Rhône drainage and northern Italy. Widely distributed in central Asia and Siberia easward to Anadyr drainage (Bering Sea basin). Historically absent from Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean France, central Italy, southern and western Greece, eastern Adriatic basin, Iceland, western Norway and northern Scotland. Widely introduced and translocated throughout Europe (Ref. 59043). Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction (Ref. 1739).; Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska, USA. Eurasia: France to eastern Siberia, south to northern Italy. ; Circumpolar in fresh water. North America: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania, Missouri and Nebraska, USA. Eurasia: France to eastern Siberia, south to northern Italy. Absent from northern Scotland. Introduced into other countries. Several countries report adverse ecological impact after introduction.; Croatia; Czech Republic; Danube; Denmark; Don; Elbe; Erqishi River; Estonia; Ethiopia; Ethiopian; Europe - Inland waters; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Lakes; Greece; Hungary; Iberian Coastal; Iran (Islamic Rep. of); Ireland; Italy; Kamchatka; Kazakhstan; Kuban River; Lake Baikal; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Macedonia, Fmr Yug Rp of; Mackenzie; Madagascar; Mississippi; Missouri; Moldova, Republic of; Monaco; Mongolia; Morocco; Nearctic; Nelson-Saskatchewan; Netherlands; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Ob-Irtysh; Ombrone; Onega River; Palearctic; Poland; Portugal; Rio Grande; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Tigris; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; USA (contiguous states); Uganda; Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uzbekistan; Volga; Yukon;



Attributes / relations provided by
1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
4Grenouillet, G. & Schmidt-Kloiber., A.; 2006; Fish Indicator Database. Euro-limpacs project, Workpackage 7 - Indicators of ecosystem health, Task 4,, version 5.0 (accessed on July 3, 2012).
5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
6A quantitative comparison between diet and body fatty acid composition in wild northern pike (Esox lucius L.), Karl Schwalme, Fish Physiology and Biochemistry vol. 10 no. 2 pp 91-98 (1992)
7Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
8Treasurer, Jim (1998) Life-history strategies of pike in a high-altitude loch in Scotland. Freshwater Forum, 11, pp. 59-68.
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