Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Gadus > Gadus macrocephalus
 

Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod; Gray cod; Cod; Alaska cod)

Synonyms: Gadus auratus; Gadus brandti; Gadus brandtii; Gadus callarias macrocephalus; Gadus morhua; Gadus morhua macrocephalus; Gadus pygmaeus
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Wikipedia Abstract

The Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, is an important commercial food species. It is also known as gray cod or grey cod, and grayfish or greyfish. It has three separate dorsal fins, and the catfish-like whiskers on its lower jaw. In appearance, it is similar to the Atlantic cod.
View Wikipedia Record: Gadus macrocephalus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  27.52 lbs (12.49 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years 1 month
Maximum Longevity [2]  18 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Prey / Diet

Acantholithodes hispidus (spiny lithode crab)[4]
Admete viridula (northern admete)[4]
Aforia circinata (keeled aforia)[4]
Agonopsis vulsa (Window-tailed sea-poacher)[4]
Alcichthys elongatus[5]
Alepisaurus ferox (Wolffish)[4]
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)[4]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[6]
Ampelisca eschrichti[4]
Ampelisca macrocephala[4]
Anonyx nugax[4]
Anoplagonus inermis (Smooth sea-poacher)[4]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[4]
Aptocyclus ventricosus (Smooth lumpsucker)[4]
Argis crassa (rough argid)[4]
Artediellus camchaticus (Sculpin)[4]
Artediellus pacificus (hookhorned sculpin)[4]
Aspidophoroides monopterygius (Atlantic alligatorfish)[4]
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)[4]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[6]
Bathyagonus alascanus (Gray starsnout poacher)[4]
Bathyagonus nigripinnis (Blackfin poacher)[4]
Bathyagonus pentacanthus (Bigeye starsnout poacher)[4]
Bathymaster signatus (Searcher)[4]
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)[4]
Bathyraja taranetzi (mud skate)[4]
Beringius kennicottii (rotund whelk)[4]
Boreogadus saida (Polar cod)[4]
Bryozoichthys lysimus (Nutcracker prickleback)[4]
Careproctus cypselurus (Snailfish)[4]
Chauliodus macouni (Fanged viperfish)[4]
Chionoecetes bairdi (southern Tanner crab)[6]
Chionoecetes opilio (snow crab)[6]
Chionoecetes tanneri (grooved Tanner crab)[4]
Clinocardium nuttallii (Nuttall cockle)[4]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[7]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[4]
Crangon affinis (Japanese sand shrimp)[4]
Crangon alaskensis[6]
Crangon dalli (ridged crangon)[6]
Cryptacanthodes aleutensis (Red devil)[4]
Cryptonatica affinis (Arctic moonsnail)[4]
Cryptonatica aleutica[4]
Ctenodiscus crispatus (Mud star)[4]
Cyclocardia crassidens (thick cyclocardia)[4]
Cyclocardia crebricostata (many-ribbed cyclocardia)[4]
Cylichna alba (white chalice-bubble)[4]
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)[4]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[6]
Elassochirus cavimanus (purple hermit)[4]
Elassochirus tenuimanus (widehand hermit)[4]
Eleginus gracilis (Wachna cod)[4]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[4]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[4]
Erimacrus isenbeckii (hair crab)[4]
Eumicrotremus orbis (Spiny lumpsucker)[4]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[4]
Fusitriton oregonensis (Oregon triton)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[6]
Glebocarcinus oregonensis (pygmy rock crab)[4]
Glyptocephalus zachirus (Witch)[4]
Gymnelus popovi (Aleutian pout)[4]
Gymnocanthus detrisus (Purplegray sculpin)[4]
Gymnocanthus galeatus (Armorhead sculpin)[4]
Gymnocanthus pistilliger (thread sculpin)[4]
Hapalogaster grebnitzkii (soft crab)[4]
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)[4]
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)[4]
Hiatella arctica (Arctic hiatella)[4]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[6]
Hippoglossoides robustus (Bering flounder)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[6]
Hyas coarctatus (Arctic lyre crab)[4]
Hyas lyratus (Pacific lyre crab)[4]
Hydrolagus colliei (Spotted rattfish)[4]
Hypsagonus quadricornis (Four-horned sea-poacher)[4]
Icelinus borealis (Comb sculpin)[4]
Icelus canaliculatus (Blacknose sculpin)[4]
Icelus spatula (Spatulate sculpin)[4]
Icelus spiniger (Thorny sculpin)[7]
Isopsetta isolepis (Butter sole)[4]
Lampanyctus jordani (Brokenline lanternfish)[4]
Latisipho hallii[4]
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)[4]
Lepidopsetta bilineata (Rock sole)[4]
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)[6]
Leptoclinus maculatus (Daubed shanny)[4]
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)[4]
Leuroglossus schmidti (northern smoothtongue)[4]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[6]
Limanda proboscidea (Longhead dab)[4]
Limanda sakhalinensis (Sakhalin sole)[4]
Limopsis akutanica (Akutan limops)[4]
Lithodes aequispinus (golden king crab)[4]
Lopholithodes foraminatus (brown box crab)[4]
Lumpenella longirostris (Long-snouted blenny)[4]
Lumpenus fabricii (Slender eelblenny)[4]
Lumpenus sagitta (Eel-blenny)[4]
Lycodapus fierasfer (Bigtooth eelpout)[4]
Lycodes brevipes (Shortfin eelpout)[4]
Lycodes palearis (Wattled eelpout)[4]
Lycodes raridens (sparse-toothed lycod)[4]
Lyopsetta exilis (Slender sole)[4]
Macoma brota (heavy macoma)[4]
Macoma calcarea (chalky macoma)[4]
Macoma expansa (expanded macoma)[4]
Macoma moesta (flat macoma)[4]
Malacocottus zonurus (Bartail sculpin)[4]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[6]
Margarites pupillus (little margarite)[4]
Megayoldia montereyensis (Monterey yoldia)[4]
Megayoldia thraciaeformis (broad yoldia)[4]
Melita dentata[4]
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)[4]
Microgadus proximus (Tommy cod)[4]
Modiolus sacculifer (bag horsemussel)[4]
Munida quadrispina (Galatheid lobster)[4]
Musculus discors (discordant mussel)[4]
Neocrangon communis (gray shrimp)[6]
Nephtys caeca (Blindwurm)[4]
Nucula tenuis (smooth nutclam)[4]
Nutricola lordi (Lord dwarf-venus)[4]
Occella dodecaedron (Bering poacher)[4]
Oncorhynchus keta (Calico salmon)[4]
Ophiura sarsii[4]
Oregonia gracilis (graceful decorator crab)[4]
Pagurus pubescens[4]
Pagurus rathbuni (longfinger hermit)[4]
Pandalopsis ampla (deepwater bigeye)[4]
Pandalopsis dispar (sidestriped shrimp)[4]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[6]
Pandalus danae (dock shrimp)[4]
Pandalus eous (Alaskan pink shrimp)[8]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[6]
Pandalus hypsinotus (coonstriped shrimp)[4]
Pandalus jordani (ocean shrimp)[4]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[4]
Pandalus stenolepis (roughpatch shrimp)[4]
Pandalus tridens (yellowleg pandalid)[4]
Panomya ampla (ample roughmya)[4]
Paralithodes camtschaticus (red king crab)[6]
Paralithodes platypus (blue king crab)[7]
Paricelinus hopliticus (Thornback sculpin)[4]
Patinopecten caurinus (weathervane scallop)[4]
Pholis clemensi (Longfin gunnel)[4]
Pholis laeta (Crescent gunnel)[4]
Pholis ornata (Saddled blenny)[4]
Phyllodoce groenlandica[4]
Placetron wosnessenskii (scaled crab)[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[9]
Podocatactes hamifer[5]
Pododesmus macroschisma[4]
Podothecus accipenserinus (Sturgeon-like sea-poacher)[4]
Poroclinus rothrocki (Whitebarred blenny)[4]
Protomyctophum thompsoni (Bigeye lanternfish)[4]
Ptilichthys goodei (Quillfish)[4]
Pugettia venetiae (Venice kelp crab)[4]
Puncturella galeata (helmet puncturella)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Rhinolithodes wosnessenskii (rhinoceros crab)[4]
Rossia pacifica (eastern pacific bobtail)[4]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[5]
Sarritor frenatus (Sawback poacher)[4]
Sarritor leptorhynchus (Longnose poacher)[4]
Sclerocrangon boreas (sculptured shrimp)[7]
Scopelosaurus harryi (Scaly wearyfish)[4]
Sebastes alutus (Snapper)[4]
Sebastes crameri (Rockfish)[4]
Sebastes polyspinis (Rockfish)[4]
Sebastolobus alascanus (Channel rockcod)[4]
Serripes groenlandicus (Greenland cockle)[4]
Sigmops gracilis (Slender fangjaw)[4]
Solariella varicosa (varicose solarelle)[4]
Stenobrachius leucopsarus (Smallfin lanternfish)[4]
Styela yakutatensis[4]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[6]
Thyriscus anoplus (sponge sculpin)[4]
Thysanoessa inermis[4]
Thysanoessa raschii (Arctic krill)[4]
Thysanoessa spinifera[4]
Trichodon trichodon (Sandfish)[4]
Trichotropis cancellata (cancellate hairysnail)[4]
Triglops forficatus (Scissortail sculpin)[4]
Triglops pingelii (Ribbed sculpin)[4]
Triglops scepticus (Spectacled sculpin)[4]
Velutina velutina (smooth lamellaria)[4]
Yoldia myalis (oval yoldia)[4]
Zaprora silenus (Prowfish)[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)2
Alcichthys elongatus3
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)2
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)2
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)2
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)5
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)2
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)5
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)3
Bathyraja maculata (White-blotched skate)2
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)2
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)3
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Careproctus furcellus (Emarginate snailfish)2
Careproctus rastrinus (Salmon snailfish)2
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Crystallichthys cyclospilus (Blotched snailfish)2
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)5
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)3
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)4
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)3
Gymnocanthus intermedius (Sculpin)2
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)3
Hexagrammos otakii (Greenling)3
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)5
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)7
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)3
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)9
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)2
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)2
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)5
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)3
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)3
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)3
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)2
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)2
Myoxocephalus ochotensis (Okhotsk sculpin)4
Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Sculpin)4
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)3
Physiculus japonicus (Japanese codling)2
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)3
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)3
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Raja binoculata (Big skate)4
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)3
Rajella fyllae (Round ray)2
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)4
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)9
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)2

Predators

Aethia psittacula (Parakeet Auklet)[4]
Aethia pusilla (Least Auklet)[4]
Alle alle (Little Auk)[4]
Anoplopoma fimbria (Skil)[4]
Anotopterus nikparini (North Pacific daggertooth)[4]
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)[4]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[6]
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)[4]
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)[4]
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)[4]
Brachyphallus crenatus[4]
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)[4]
Brachyramphus perdix (Long-billed Murrelet)[4]
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)[4]
Cepphus carbo (Spectacled Guillemot)[4]
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)[4]
Chroicocephalus saundersi (Saunders's Gull)[4]
Cleisthenes herzensteini (pointhead flounder)[4]
Derogenes varicus[4]
Echinorhynchus gadi[4]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[10]
Erignathus barbatus (Bearded Seal)[4]
Eudyptes pachyrhynchus (Fiordland Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes robustus (Snares Penguin)[4]
Eudyptes sclateri (Erect-crested Penguin)[4]
Eudyptula minor (Fairy Penguin)[4]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[11]
Fratercula arctica (Atlantic Puffin)[4]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[12]
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)[4]
Fulmarus glacialis (Northern Fulmar)[4]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[6]
Galeorhinus galeus (Vitamin shark)[13]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[4]
Hippoglossoides robustus (Bering flounder)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[6]
Homo sapiens (man)[4]
Hydroprogne caspia (Caspian Tern)[4]
Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus (Great Black-headed Gull)[4]
Ichthyaetus relictus (Relict Gull)[4]
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)[13]
Larus canus (Mew Gull)[4]
Larus hyperboreus (Glaucous Gull)[4]
Lecithaster gibbosus[4]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[4]
Megadyptes antipodes (Yellow-eyed Penguin)[4]
Microcarbo coronatus (Crowned Cormorant)[4]
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)[4]
Morus serrator (Australasian Gannet)[4]
Nybelinia surmenicola[4]
Oncorhynchus kisutch (coho salmon or silver salmon)[4]
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (chinook salmon or king salmon)[4]
Onychoprion aleuticus (Aleutian Tern)[4]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[4]
Orcinus orca (Killer Whale)[4]
Pagophila eburnea (Ivory Gull)[4]
Parahucho perryi (Stringfish)[4]
Phalacrocorax aristotelis (Shag)[4]
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant)[4]
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)[4]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[4]
Phocoenoides dalli (Dall's Porpoise)[4]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[4]
Raja binoculata (Big skate)[4]
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)[4]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[4]
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)[4]
Somniosus pacificus (Pacific Sleeper Shark)[4]
Spheniscus magellanicus (Magellanic Penguin)[4]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[4]
Stercorarius parasiticus (Parasitic Jaeger)[4]
Sterna forsteri (Forster's Tern)[4]
Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)[4]
Sternula albifrons (Little Tern)[4]
Sternula antillarum (Least Tern)[4]
Synthliboramphus antiquus (Ancient Murrelet)[4]
Synthliboramphus wumizusume (Japanese Murrelet)[4]
Thalassarche cauta (Shy Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche eremita (Chatham Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche melanophris (Black-browed Albatross)[4]
Thalassarche salvini (Salvin's Albatross)[4]
Thalasseus bernsteini (Chinese Crested Tern)[4]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[6]
Uria aalge (Common Murre)[4]
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)[4]
Xema sabini (Sabine's Gull)[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Abothrium gadi[14]
Anisakis physeteris <Unverified Name>[14]
Anisakis simplex[14]
Anisorchis opisthorchis[14]
Aporocotyle theragrae[14]
Ascaris gadibrandti <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascarophis filiformis <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascarophis orientalis <Unverified Name>[14]
Ascarophis pacifica <Unverified Name>[14]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[14]
Brachyphallus crenatus[14]
Contracaecum osculatum[14]
Corynosoma strumosum[14]
Corynosoma villosum[14]
Derogenes gadi <Unverified Name>[14]
Derogenes varicus[14]
Dinosoma tortum[14]
Diplocotyle olrikii[14]
Echinorhynchus gadi[14]
Echinorhynchus truttae[14]
Echinorhynchus yamagutii[14]
Floriceps saccatus[14]
Genolinea anura[14]
Gonocerca phycidis[14]
Gyrodactylus marinus[14]
Hemiurus levinseni[14]
Lecithaster gibbosus[14]
Lecithochirium platessae[14]
Lepidapedon gadi[14]
Neophasis oculatus[14]
Parahemiurus merus[14]
Phocanema decipiens[4]
Podocotyle atomon[14]
Podocotyle olssoni[4]
Podocotyle reflexa[14]
Pomphorhynchus laevis[4]
Prosorhynchus crucibulum[14]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[14]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[14]
Rhynchobothrium pilidiatus <Unverified Name>[14]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[14]
Steganoderma formosum[14]
Stenakron vetustum[14]
Stephanostomum baccatum[14]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[14]

Distribution

Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; China; East Bering Sea; East China Sea; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutians, and south to about Los Angeles, USA. Rare in the southern part of its range.; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea; Yellow Sea;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5Diets of the demersal fishes on the shelf off Iwate, northern Japan, T. Fujita, D. Kitagawa, Y. Okuyama, Y. Ishito, T. Inada, Y. Jin, Marine Biology (1995) 123:219-233 6Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p. 7Feeding Interactions and Diet of Carnivorous Fishes in the Shelikhov Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk, V. V. Napazakov, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2008, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 452–460 8Food habits of Pacific cod and walleye pollock in the northern Gulf of Alaska, Daniel Urban, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 469: 215–222, 2012 9The trophic role of Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius, in the Aleutian Islands area, Mei-Sun Yang, Fish. Bull. 97(4):1047-1057 (1999) 10Feeding and Prey of Pacific Lamprey in Coastal Waters of the Western North Pacific, Alexei Orlov, Richard Beamish, Andrei Vinnikov, Dmitry Pelenev, American Fisheries Society Symposium 69, 2009 11SEASONAL AND SPATIAL DIFFERENCES IN DIET IN THE WESTERN STOCK OF STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS), E. H. Sinclair and T. K. Zeppelin, Journal of Mammalogy Vol. 83, No. 4 (Nov., 2002), pp. 973-990 12HABITAT USE, DIET AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF TUFTED PUFFINS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA, John F. Piatt, Daniel D. Roby, Laird Henkel and Kriss Neuman, Northwestern Naturalist 78:102-109 (1997) 13Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 14Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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