Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Gadiformes > Gadidae > Gadus > Gadus macrocephalus
 

Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod; Gray cod; Cod; Alaska cod)

Synonyms: Gadus auratus; Gadus brandti; Gadus brandtii; Gadus callarias macrocephalus; Gadus morhua; Gadus morhua macrocephalus; Gadus pygmaeus
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Wikipedia Abstract

The Pacific cod, Gadus macrocephalus, is an important commercial food species. It is also known as gray cod or grey cod, and grayfish or greyfish. It has three separate dorsal fins, and the catfish-like whiskers on its lower jaw. In appearance, it is similar to the Atlantic cod.
View Wikipedia Record: Gadus macrocephalus

Attributes

Adult Weight [1]  27.52 lbs (12.49 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  4 years 1 month
Maximum Longevity [2]  18 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Aleutian Islands Biosphere Reserve 2720489 Alaska, United States    
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada

Prey / Diet

Alcichthys elongatus[4]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[5]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Chionoecetes bairdi (southern Tanner crab)[5]
Chionoecetes opilio (snow crab)[5]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Crangon alaskensis[5]
Crangon dalli (ridged crangon)[5]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[5]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[5]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Icelus spiniger (Thorny sculpin)[6]
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)[5]
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Neocrangon communis (gray shrimp)[5]
Pandalus borealis (northern shrimp)[5]
Pandalus eous (Alaskan pink shrimp)[7]
Pandalus goniurus (humpy shrimp)[5]
Paralithodes camtschaticus (red king crab)[5]
Paralithodes platypus (blue king crab)[6]
Pleurogrammus monopterygius (Atka mackerel)[8]
Podocatactes hamifer[4]
Sardinops sagax (Australian pilchard)[4]
Sclerocrangon boreas (sculptured shrimp)[6]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Aechmophorus occidentalis (Western Grebe)2
Alcichthys elongatus3
Amblyraja hyperborea (Arctic skate)2
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)2
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)2
Atheresthes evermanni (Kamchatka flounder)2
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)5
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)2
Balaenoptera borealis (Sei Whale)2
Balaenoptera physalus (Fin Whale)2
Bathyraja aleutica (Aleutian skate)5
Bathyraja interrupta (Sandpaper skate)3
Bathyraja maculata (White-blotched skate)2
Bathyraja parmifera (Flathead skate)2
Brachyramphus brevirostris (Kittlitz's Murrelet)3
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Careproctus furcellus (Emarginate snailfish)2
Careproctus rastrinus (Salmon snailfish)2
Cepphus columba (Pigeon Guillemot)2
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)2
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)2
Crystallichthys cyclospilus (Blotched snailfish)2
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)5
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)3
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)4
Fratercula corniculata (Horned Puffin)2
Gadus morhua (rock cod)3
Gymnocanthus intermedius (Sculpin)2
Hemilepidotus jordani (Yellow Irish lord)3
Hexagrammos otakii (Greenling)3
Hexagrammos stelleri (Greenling)5
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)7
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)3
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)9
Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-sided Dolphin)2
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)2
Lepidopsetta polyxystra (Northern rock sole)5
Leptocottus armatus (Cabezon)2
Limanda aspera (Yellowfin sole)3
Macrourus berglax (smoothspined grenadier)3
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)3
Megaptera novaeangliae (Humpback Whale)3
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)2
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)2
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)2
Myoxocephalus ochotensis (Okhotsk sculpin)4
Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus (Sculpin)4
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)2
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)3
Physiculus japonicus (Japanese codling)2
Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus (Alaska plaice)3
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)3
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Pollachius virens (Sillock)2
Raja binoculata (Big skate)4
Raja rhina (Longnose skate)3
Rajella fyllae (Round ray)2
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)2
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)4
Sebastes caurinus (Copper rockfish)2
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)2
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)9
Triglops murrayi (Moustache sculpin)2
Uria aalge (Common Murre)2
Uria lomvia (Thick-billed Murre)2

Predators

Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Entosphenus tridentatus (Pacific lamprey)[9]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[10]
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)[11]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Abothrium gadi[12]
Anisakis physeteris <Unverified Name>[12]
Anisakis simplex[12]
Anisorchis opisthorchis[12]
Aporocotyle theragrae[12]
Ascaris gadibrandti <Unverified Name>[12]
Ascarophis filiformis <Unverified Name>[12]
Ascarophis orientalis <Unverified Name>[12]
Ascarophis pacifica <Unverified Name>[12]
Bothriocephalus scorpii[12]
Brachyphallus crenatus[12]
Contracaecum osculatum[12]
Corynosoma strumosum[12]
Corynosoma villosum[12]
Derogenes gadi <Unverified Name>[12]
Derogenes varicus[12]
Dinosoma tortum[12]
Diplocotyle olrikii[12]
Echinorhynchus gadi[12]
Echinorhynchus truttae[12]
Echinorhynchus yamagutii[12]
Floriceps saccatus[12]
Genolinea anura[12]
Gonocerca phycidis[12]
Gyrodactylus marinus[12]
Hemiurus levinseni[12]
Lecithaster gibbosus[12]
Lecithochirium platessae[12]
Lepidapedon gadi[12]
Neophasis oculatus[12]
Parahemiurus merus[12]
Podocotyle atomon[12]
Podocotyle reflexa[12]
Prosorhynchus crucibulum[12]
Pseudoterranova decipiens[12]
Pyramicocephalus phocarum[12]
Rhynchobothrium pilidiatus <Unverified Name>[12]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[12]
Steganoderma formosum[12]
Stenakron vetustum[12]
Stephanostomum baccatum[12]
Tubulovesicula lindbergi[12]

Distribution

Alaska (USA); California Current; Canada; China; East Bering Sea; East China Sea; Gulf of Alaska; Japan; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; North Pacific: Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait, along the Aleutians, and south to about Los Angeles, USA. Rare in the southern part of its range.; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Russian Federation; Sea of Japan; Sea of Okhotsk; USA (contiguous states); West Bering Sea; Yellow Sea;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Diets of the demersal fishes on the shelf off Iwate, northern Japan, T. Fujita, D. Kitagawa, Y. Okuyama, Y. Ishito, T. Inada, Y. Jin, Marine Biology (1995) 123:219-233 5Groundfish Food Habits and Predation on Commercially Important Prey Species in the Eastern Bering Sea From 1997 Through 2001, Lang, G. M., P. A. Livingston, and K. A. Dodd, 2005, U.S. Dep. Comer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-AFSC-158, 230 p. 6Feeding Interactions and Diet of Carnivorous Fishes in the Shelikhov Bay of the Sea of Okhotsk, V. V. Napazakov, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2008, Vol. 34, No. 7, pp. 452–460 7Food habits of Pacific cod and walleye pollock in the northern Gulf of Alaska, Daniel Urban, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 469: 215–222, 2012 8The trophic role of Atka mackerel, Pleurogrammus monopterygius, in the Aleutian Islands area, Mei-Sun Yang, Fish. Bull. 97(4):1047-1057 (1999) 9Feeding and Prey of Pacific Lamprey in Coastal Waters of the Western North Pacific, Alexei Orlov, Richard Beamish, Andrei Vinnikov, Dmitry Pelenev, American Fisheries Society Symposium 69, 2009 10SEASONAL AND SPATIAL DIFFERENCES IN DIET IN THE WESTERN STOCK OF STELLER SEA LIONS (EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS), E. H. Sinclair and T. K. Zeppelin, Journal of Mammalogy Vol. 83, No. 4 (Nov., 2002), pp. 973-990 11HABITAT USE, DIET AND BREEDING BIOLOGY OF TUFTED PUFFINS IN PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND, ALASKA, John F. Piatt, Daniel D. Roby, Laird Henkel and Kriss Neuman, Northwestern Naturalist 78:102-109 (1997) 12Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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