Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Perciformes > Sciaenidae > Leiostomus > Leiostomus xanthurus
 

Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker; Spot)

Synonyms: Leiostomus humeralis; Mugil obliquus; Perca edentula; Sciaena multifasciata
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Wikipedia Abstract

The Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) or Norfolk spot is a small short-lived saltwater fish in the family Sciaenidae. The species inhabits estuary and coastal waters from Massachusetts to Texas, and derives its name from the prominent dark spot behind each gill. It is the only species in the monotypic genus Leiostomus. Spot are frequently caught by recreational anglers and are good to eat.Their diet consists largely of organic detritus, small crustaceans, and worms.
View Wikipedia Record: Leiostomus xanthurus

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  248 grams
Maximum Longevity [3]  4 years
Migration [1]  Oceano-estuarine
Water Biome [1]  Benthic, Rivers and Streams, Coastal

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Cape Cod National Seashore II 21724 Massachusetts, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Colonial National Historic Park National Historical Park V 9316 Virginia, United States
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
George Washington Memorial Parkway V   Virginia, United States
Jean Lafitte National Hist. Park & Preserve National Historical Park II 17686 Louisiana, United States

Prey / Diet

Acartia tonsa[4]
Acetes americanus (aviu shrimp)[4]
Alitta succinea (pile worm)[4]
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[4]
Alosa sapidissima (American shad)[4]
Alpheus normanni (green snapping shrimp)[4]
Americamysis almyra[4]
Ampelisca abdita[5]
Ampelisca macrocephala[5]
Ampharete oculata[6]
Anchoa hepsetus (Broad-striped anchovy)[6]
Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)[4]
Armandia maculata[4]
Boiga dendrophila (Gold-ringed Cat Snake, Mangrove Snake)[4]
Bowmaniella brasiliensis[4]
Brevoortia patronus (Bunker)[4]
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)[4]
Calanopia americana[4]
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)[4]
Caprella penantis[4]
Corycaeus amazonicus[4]
Coullana canadensis[4]
Crangon septemspinosa (sevenspine bay shrimp)[5]
Cyathura polita (Slender isopod)[4]
Edotia montosa[4]
Eurytemora hirundoides[4]
Exogone dispar[4]
Fenestraria rhopalophylla (babies toes)[4]
Gammarus mucronatus[4]
Goniada littorea[4]
Grandidierella bonnieroides[4]
Halodule wrightii (shoalweed)[4]
Ischadium recurvum (hooked mussel)[4]
Labidocera aestiva[4]
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)[4]
Leodice antennata[4]
Leptochela papulata (light glass shrimp)[4]
Leptochelia rapax[4]
Loimia viridis[4]
Lumbrineris verrilli[4]
Mediomastus californiensis[4]
Metharpinia floridana[4]
Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croacker)[4]
Monoculodes nyei[4]
Morone americana (Wreckfish)[4]
Mulinia pontchartrainensis[4]
Mysidopsis furca[4]
Mytilopsis leucophaeata (Brackish water mussel)[4]
Neomysis americana (Mysid shrimp)[5]
Nucula crenulata (crenulate nutclam)[4]
Odontosyllis enopla (Luminescent threadworm)[4]
Oxyurostylis smithi[6]
Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp)[4]
Paracalanus crassirostris[4]
Paradoneis lyra[4]
Parapenaeus politus (rose shrimp)[4]
Paraprionospio pinnata[4]
Philocheras gorei[4]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[4]
Probythinella protera[4]
Pseudodiaptomus coronatus[4]
Pseudopotamilla reniformis[4]
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (estuarine mud crab)[4]
Ruppia cirrhosa (spiral ditchgrass)[4]
Syllis amica[4]
Synchelidium americanum[4]
Temora turbinata[4]
Texadina sphinctostoma (narrowmouth hydrobe)[4]
Trinectes maculatus (Hogchoker)[4]
Westheidesyllis gesae[4]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Alosa mediocris (Hickory shad)1
Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)1
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)2
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)1
Anchoa hepsetus (Broad-striped anchovy)1
Brevoortia aurea (Brazilian menhaden)1
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)1
Brosme brosme (Tusk)1
Calamus leucosteus (Whitebone porgy)1
Caranx ruber (Bar jack)1
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)1
Caretta caretta (Loggerhead)1
Centropristis striata (Sea bass)3
Clangula hyemalis (Oldsquaw)1
Coelorinchus caelorhincus (Saddled grenadier)1
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)3
Cynoscion striatus (Striped weakfish)1
Dasyatis say (Say's stingray)1
Dasycottus setiger (Spinyhead sculpin)1
Haemulon aurolineatum (Seize)1
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)2
Larimus fasciatus (Banded drum)1
Lepophidium profundorum (Fawn cusk-eel)1
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)2
Leucoraja garmani (Freckled skate)1
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)1
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)1
Lutjanus campechanus (Red snapper)1
Malacoraja senta (Smooth skate)2
Menticirrhus americanus (Woundhead)2
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Northern kingfish)2
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)3
Micropogonias furnieri (Whitemouth drummer)1
Morone americana (Wreckfish)2
Morone saxatilis (Striper bass)1
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)1
Mycteroperca microlepis (Velvet rockfish)1
Myoxocephalus aenaeus (Little sculpin)2
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)1
Ophichthus cruentifer (Snake eel)1
Ophidion marginatum (Striped cusk-eel)1
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)2
Paralichthys orbignyanus1
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)3
Prionotus carolinus (Searobin)3
Prionotus evolans (Striped searobin)2
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)4
Raja eglanteria (Clearnose skate)1
Rhinoptera bonasus (Skeete)1
Rhizoprionodon terraenovae (Atlantic sharp-nosed shark)1
Rhomboplites aurorubens (Vermillion snapper)1
Scomber scombrus (Split)1
Scomberomorus cavalla (Spanish mackerel)1
Scomberomorus maculatus (Spanish mackerel)1
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)2
Sphyraena guachancho (Sockeye)1
Sphyrna lewini (Southern hammerhead shark)1
Stenotomus chrysops (Scup)4
Syngnathus fuscus (Northern pipefish)1
Synodus foetens (Soapfish)1
Trichiurus lepturus (Atlantic Cutlassfish)1
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)2
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)2

Predators

Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)[4]
Ardea alba (Great Egret)[4]
Ariopsis felis (Sea catfish)[4]
Astroscopus y-graecum (Southern stargazer)[4]
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)[4]
Carcharhinus altimus (Knopp's shark)[4]
Carcharhinus obscurus (Whaler shark)[6]
Carcharhinus plumbeus (Thickskin shark)[6]
Carcharias taurus (Spotted sand tiger shark)[6]
Centropomus undecimalis (Thin snook)[4]
Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Yellowtail)[4]
Cynoscion nebulosus (Spotted weakfish)[4]
Cynoscion regalis (Weakfish)[4]
Dasyatis sabina (Atlantic stingray)[4]
Dasyatis say (Say's stingray)[6]
Doryteuthis pleii (arrow squid)[7]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[4]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[4]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[4]
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)[4]
Lophodytes cucullatus (Hooded Merganser)[4]
Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croacker)[4]
Morone americana (Wreckfish)[4]
Morone saxatilis (Striper bass)[4]
Mycteroperca microlepis (Velvet rockfish)[4]
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)[8]
Paralichthys lethostigma (Southern flounder)[4]
Pogonias cromis (Sea drum)[4]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]
Sarda sarda (Stripe-backed pelamis)[4]
Sciaenops ocellatus (Spotted bass)[4]
Scomberomorus cavalla (Spanish mackerel)[4]
Scomberomorus maculatus (Spanish mackerel)[4]
Sebastes ruberrimus (Yelloweye rockfish)[4]
Squatina dumeril (Atlantic angelshark)[6]
Tursiops truncatus (Bottlenosed Dolphin)[4]

Providers

Parasite of 
Aponurus pyriformis[4]
Caballerorhynchus lamothei[4]
Diplomonorchis leiostomi[4]
Dollfusentis chandleri[4]
Grillotia erinaceus[4]
Heteraxinoides xanthophilis[4]
Heteronybelinia estigmena[4]
Homalometron manteri[4]
Homalometron pallidum[4]
Lecithaster leiostomi[4]
Lepocreadium setiferoides[4]
Opecoeloides fimbriatus[4]
Opecoeloides vitellosus[4]
Otobothrium cysticum[4]
Parahemiurus merus[4]
Polymorphus brevis[4]
Serrasentis sagittifer[4]
Zoogonus rubellus[4]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Apocreadium manteri <Unverified Name>[9]
Aponurus pyriformis[9]
Caballerorhynchus lamothei[9]
Diplomonorchis leiostomi[9]
Dollfusentis chandleri[9]
Grillotia erinaceus[9]
Heteraxinoides xanthophilis[9]
Heteronybelinia estigmena[9]
Homalometron manteri[9]
Homalometron pallidum[9]
Lecithaster leiostomi[9]
Lepocreadium setiferoides[9]
Opecoeloides fimbriatus[9]
Opecoeloides vitellosus[9]
Otobothrium cysticum[9]
Parahemiurus merus[9]
Poecilancistrium caryophyllum[9]
Polymorphus brevis[9]
Scolex polymorphus <Unverified Name>[9]
Serrasentis sagittifer[9]
Spirocamallanus cricotus <Unverified Name>[9]
Zoogonus rubellus[9]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Brevard Zoo
Liberty Science Center
Riverbanks Zoo and Garden
Virginia Aquarium&Marine Science Ctr

Distribution

Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Gulf of Mexico; Mexico; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf; USA (contiguous states); Western Atlantic: Massachusetts to northern Mexico; absent in southern Florida.;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495. 4Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 5 Steimle FW, Pikanowski RA, McMillan DG, Zetlin CA, Wilk SJ. 2000. Demersal Fish and American Lobster Diets in the Lower Hudson - Raritan Estuary. US Dep Commer, NOAA Tech Memo NMFS NE 161; 106 p. 6Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 8Latour, Robert J., et al. "The trophic dynamics of summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) in Chesapeake Bay." Fishery Bulletin 106.1 (2008): 47+. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 July 2010 9Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
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