Animalia > Chordata > Actinopterygii > Pleuronectiformes > Paralichthyidae > Paralichthys > Paralichthys lethostigma

Paralichthys lethostigma (Southern flounder; Fluke; Flounder)

Synonyms: Paralichthys letostigma
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Wikipedia Abstract

The southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) is a species of large-tooth flounders native to the eastern and gulf coasts of the United States. It is a popular sports fish and is the largest and most commercially valuable flounder in the western North Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico. Its range is North Carolina to the Yucatan Peninsula. It is a "left-eyed flounder", meaning the left side is pigmented and is the "up side". The body color is brown with diffuse, unocellated spots and blotches.
View Wikipedia Record: Paralichthys lethostigma


Adult Weight [1]  11.31 lbs (5.13 kg)
Maximum Longevity [2]  8 years


Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
East Texas Gulf United States Nearctic Temperate Coastal Rivers    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Canaveral National Seashore II 9090 Florida, United States
Central Gulf Coastal Plain Biosphere Reserve 40530 United States  
Everglades and Dry Tortugas Biosphere Reserve   Florida, United States  
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary IV 2387149 Florida, United States

Prey / Diet

Americamysis bigelowi[3]
Anchoa mitchilli (Bay anchovy)[3]
Archosargus probatocephalus (Southern sheeps head)[3]
Brachidontes exustus (scorched mussel)[3]
Brevoortia patronus (Bunker)[3]
Callinectes sapidus (blue crab)[3]
Cynoscion arenarius (Sand seatrout)[3]
Farfantepenaeus aztecus (brown shrimp)[3]
Lagodon rhomboides (Salt-water bream)[4]
Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot croaker)[3]
Litopenaeus setiferus (white shrimp)[3]
Lolliguncula brevis (Atlantic brief squid)[3]
Menidia beryllina (Waxen silverside)[3]
Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic croacker)[3]
Mugil cephalus (gray mullet)[3]
Neomysis americana (Mysid shrimp)[3]
Palaemonetes pugio (daggerblade grass shrimp)[3]
Paralichthys lethostigma (Southern flounder)[3]
Polydactylus octonemus (Atlantic threadfin)[3]
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (estuarine mud crab)[3]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Ariopsis felis (Sea catfish)1
Centropomus undecimalis (Thin snook)1
Cynoscion nebulosus (Spotted weakfish)1
Lepisosteus oculatus (Spotted gar)1


Bagre marinus (Slooprig)[3]
Cynoscion nebulosus (Spotted weakfish)[3]
Paralichthys lethostigma (Southern flounder)[3]
Sciaenops ocellatus (Spotted bass)[3]


Parasitized by 
Atactorhynchus verecundus[5]
Contracaecum collieri <Unverified Name>[5]
Margolisianum bulbosum <Unverified Name>[5]
Neoheterobothrium hirame[5]
Otobothrium cysticum[5]
Prosorhynchoides bennetti[5]
Southwellina hispida[5]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Brevard Zoo

Range Map

Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Western Central; China; Gulf of Mexico; Southeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Trinidad and Tobago; USA (contiguous states); Western Atlantic: North Carolina to Texas in USA, but absent from southern Florida.;



Attributes / relations provided by
1de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774
2Frimpong, E.A., and P. L. Angermeier. 2009. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States. Fisheries 34:487-495.
3Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics.
4Production sources and food web structure of a temperate tidal estuary: integration of dietary and stable isotope data, Kirk O. Winemiller, Senol Akin, Steven C. Zeug, Mar Ecol Prog Ser 343: 63–76, 2007
5Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Images provided by Google Image Search
Abstract provided by DBpedia licensed under a Creative Commons License
Weather provided by NOAA METAR Data Access