Animalia > Chordata > Elasmobranchii > Squaliformes > Squalidae > Squalus > Squalus acanthias
 

Squalus acanthias (Common spiny; Spiny; White-spotted spurdog; White-spotted dogfish; Whitespotted dogfish; Victorian spotted dogfish; Spurdog; Spur dogfish; Spring dogfish; Spotted spiny dogfish; Spiny dogfish; Spiky dog; Southern spiny dogfish; Rigg; Rock salmon; Piked dogfish; Picked dogfish; Pacific dogfish; Huss; Grayfish; Flake; Dogfish; Darwen salmon; Common spiny fish; Blue dog)

Synonyms: Acanthias americanus; Acanthias antiguorum; Acanthias commun; Acanthias lebruni; Acanthias linnei; Spinax mediterraneus; Squalus acanthias acanthias; Squalus acanthias africana; Squalus acanthias chilensis; Squalus acanthias ponticus; Squalus acanthis; Squalus achantias; Squalus antiquorum; Squalus barbouri; Squalus kirki; Squalus suckleyi; Squalus tasmaniensis; Squalus whitleyi
Language: Afrikaans; Albanian; Arabic; Bulgarian; Catalan; Croatian; Czech; Danish; Dutch; Faroese; Finnish; French; German; Greek; Greenlandic; Haida; Hebrew; Icelandic; Italian; Japanese; Korean; Maltese; Mandarin Chinese; Manx; Maori; Norwegian; Polish; Portuguese; Romanian; Russian; Salish; Serbian; Spanish; Swedish; Turkish

Wikipedia Abstract

The spiny dogfish, spurdog, mud shark, or piked dogfish, Squalus acanthias, is one of the best known species of the Squalidae (dogfish) family of sharks, which is part of the Squaliformes order. While these common names may apply to several species, Squalus acanthias is distinguished by having two spines (one anterior to each dorsal fin) and lacks an anal fin. It is found mostly in shallow waters and further offshore in most parts of the world, especially in temperate waters.
View Wikipedia Record: Squalus acanthias

Attributes

Adult Weight [2]  11.03 lbs (5.01 kg)
Female Maturity [2]  21 years
Male Maturity [2]  8 years 8 months
Litter Size [2]  8
Maximum Longevity [2]  75 years
Migration [3]  Oceanodromous
Water Biome [1]  Benthic, Coastal

Ecoregions

Name Countries Ecozone Biome Species Report Climate Land
Use
Central & Western Europe Austria, Belgium, Byelarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom Palearctic Temperate Floodplain River and Wetlands    

Protected Areas

Name IUCN Category Area acres Location Species Website Climate Land Use
Cardigan Bay/ Bae Ceredigion 236876 Wales, United Kingdom
Forillon National Park II 61010 Quebec, Canada  
Gateway National Recreation Area V 1807 New Jersey, United States
Gwaii Haanas National Park Reserve II 366714 British Columbia, Canada
Karadagskiy Zapovednik Nature Zapovednik 13876 Ukraine  
Lyme Bay and Torbay 77215 England, United Kingdom
Mount Arrowsmith Biosphere Reserve 293047 British Columbia, Canada  
Pacific Rim National Park Reserve II 137900 British Columbia, Canada
Pembrokeshire Marine/ Sir Benfro Forol 341177 Wales, United Kingdom  
Saguenay - St. Lawrence Marine Park National Marine Conservation Area II 310822 Canada
Sikhote-Alinskiy Biosphere Reserve 978001 Russia  
Y Fenai a Bae Conwy/ Menai Strait and Conwy Bay 65440 Wales, United Kingdom  

Prey / Diet

Alosa pseudoharengus (kyack)[4]
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)[5]
Ammodytes americanus (inshore sand lance)[5]
Ammodytes dubius (offshore sand lance)[4]
Ammodytes hexapterus (Stout sand lance)[6]
Ammodytes marinus (sand eel)[5]
Ammodytes tobianus (lesser sand eel)[5]
Anarhichas denticulatus (Northern wolffish)[5]
Anarhichas lupus (Wolffish)[5]
Anarhichas minor (Spotted wolf-fish)[5]
Aphrodita aculeata (Sea mouse)[5]
Argentina silus (Atlantic argentine)[5]
Astarte arctica (Arctic astarte)[5]
Atheresthes stomias (Turbot)[5]
Auchenoceros punctatus (Ahuru)[5]
Aurelia aurita (moon jelly)[5]
Belone belone (Garfish)[5]
Beroe cucumis[5]
Bolinopsis infundibulum (Common northern comb jelly)[5]
Brevoortia tyrannus (Shad)[5]
Brosme brosme (Tusk)[5]
Buccinum undatum (common whelk)[5]
Buglossidium luteum (Yellow sole)[5]
Callionymus lyra (european dragonet)[5]
Callionymus reticulatus (Reticulated dragonet)[5]
Caranx rhonchus (False scad)[5]
Citharichthys arctifrons (Gulf Stream flounder)[5]
Clupea harengus (Yawling)[4]
Clupea pallasii (Pacific herring)[5]
Clupea pallasii pallasii (Pacific herring)[6]
Cololabis saira (Skipper)[5]
Crangon allmanni[5]
Crangon crangon (common shrimp)[5]
Ctenogobius boleosoma (Darter goby)[5]
Doryteuthis gahi[7]
Doryteuthis pleii (arrow squid)[5]
Echiichthys vipera (Lesser weever)[5]
Echiurus echiurus (Echiurud worm)[5]
Engraulis encrasicolus (Southern African anchovy)[8]
Engraulis japonicus (Japanese anchovy)[5]
Engraulis mordax (Californian anchoveta)[9]
Enteroctopus dofleini (North Pacific giant octopus)[5]
Enteroctopus megalocyathus (Southern Red Octopus)[7]
Euphausia pacifica (Pacific krill)[9]
Euphysa flammea[5]
Funchalia woodwardi[5]
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)[5]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[5]
Gastrosaccus spinifer[5]
Glyptocephalus cynoglossus (Witch flounder)[5]
Glyptocephalus zachirus (Witch)[5]
Gonatus fabricii (boreoatlantic armhook squid)[5]
Grahamichthys radiata (Graham's gudgeon)[5]
Hippoglossina oblonga (Fourspot flounder)[5]
Hippoglossoides elassodon (Paper sole)[5]
Hippoglossoides platessoides (American dab)[5]
Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Halibut)[5]
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)[5]
Hydrolagus colliei (Spotted rattfish)[5]
Hyperoplus lanceolatus (greater sand eel)[5]
Illex argentinus (Argentine Shortfin Squid)[7]
Illex illecebrosus (northern shortfin squid)[10]
Leucoraja erinacea (common skate)[5]
Leucoraja ocellata (Winter skate)[5]
Limacina helicina (helicid pteropod)[5]
Limanda ferruginea (rusty flounder)[5]
Limanda limanda (Sand dab)[8]
Liocarcinus holsatus (flying crab)[5]
Lumpenus lampretaeformis (serpent blenny)[5]
Lunatia heros (northern moonsnail)[5]
Macropipus tuberculatus (portunid crab)[5]
Macruronus magellanicus (Patagonian whiphake)[5]
Mallotus villosus (Capelin)[5]
Melanogrammus aeglefinus (Smokie)[5]
Merlangius merlangus (Whiting)[8]
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)[5]
Merluccius hubbsi (Southwest Atlantic hake)[11]
Merluccius productus (Whiting)[5]
Mertensia ovum (Sea walnut)[5]
Metacarcinus anthonyi (yellow crab)[5]
Metacarcinus magister (Dungeness crab)[9]
Metacarcinus novaezelandiae (pie crust crab)[5]
Micrenophrys lilljeborgii (Norway bullhead)[5]
Micromesistius poutassou (Poutassou)[5]
Microstomus kitt (Sweet fluke)[5]
Mnemiopsis leidyi (Leidy's comb jelly)[8]
Molva dypterygia (Ling)[5]
Molva molva (Ling)[5]
Mullus barbatus (red mullet)[8]
Munida gregaria[8]
Mustelus canis (Dogfish)[5]
Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus (Sea raven)[5]
Nectocarcinus antarcticus[5]
Neocalanus cristatus[5]
Neocalanus plumchrus[5]
Nephrops norvegicus (Norway lobster)[5]
Nototodarus sloani (Wellington flying squid)[5]
Nyctiphanes australis[8]
Ophelia limacina (ophélie)[5]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[5]
Ovalipes catharus[5]
Pagurus bernhardus (Bernhard's hermit crab)[5]
Pandalopsis dispar (sidestriped shrimp)[5]
Pandalus jordani (ocean shrimp)[5]
Pandalus montagui (Aesop shrimp)[5]
Pandalus stenolepis (roughpatch shrimp)[5]
Paralichthys dentatus (fluke)[5]
Parophrys vetulus (English sole)[5]
Pasiphaea sivado (white glass shrimp)[5]
Patagonotothen ramsayi (Longtail Southern cod)[5]
Peprilus triacanthus (Sheephead)[5]
Pholis gunnellus (Tissy)[5]
Pleurobrachia pileus (Sea gooseberry)[8]
Pleuronectes platessa (European plaice)[5]
Pollachius pollachius (Pollock)[5]
Pollachius virens (Sillock)[5]
Polymixia lowei (Barbudo)[5]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]
Pomatoschistus minutus (freckled goby)[5]
Prionotus carolinus (Searobin)[5]
Protomyctophum thompsoni (Bigeye lanternfish)[5]
Psettichthys melanostictus (Pacific sand sole)[5]
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (rough flounder)[5]
Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Turbot)[5]
Sardina pilchardus (European pilchard)[5]
Scomber scombrus (Split)[4]
Scophthalmus aquosus (brill)[5]
Sepiola atlantica (Atlantic Bobtail)[5]
Solea solea (True sole)[5]
Sprattus fuegensis (chicken sprat)[8]
Sprattus sprattus (Whitebait)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Stromateus brasiliensis (Butterfish)[5]
Thaleichthys pacificus (Candlefish)[5]
Themisto gaudichaudii[5]
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)[5]
Thysanoessa spinifera[5]
Todarodes angolensis (Angola flying squid)[5]
Trachinus draco (Greater weever)[5]
Trachurus trachurus (Scad)[5]
Trisopterus esmarkii (Norway pout)[5]
Trisopterus minutus (poor cod)[5]
Upogebia pusilla (Mediterranean mud shrimp)[8]
Uranoscopus scaber (Stargazer)[5]
Urophycis chuss (Squirrel hake)[4]
Urophycis regia (Spotted hake)[5]
Urophycis tenuis (White hake)[5]
Venustaconcha ellipsiformis (ellipse)[5]
Zoarces americanus (Ocean pout)[5]

Prey / Diet Overlap

Competing SpeciesCommon Prey Count
Amblyraja radiata (Starry ray)3
Balaenoptera acutorostrata (Minke Whale)4
Bathyraja brachyurops (Common ray)2
Brachyramphus marmoratus (Marbled Murrelet)2
Callorhinus ursinus (Northern Fur Seal)2
Cephalorhynchus commersonii (Commerson's Dolphin)4
Cerorhinca monocerata (Rhinoceros Auklet)3
Coryphaena hippurus (Mahi-mahi)3
Delphinus delphis (Short-beaked Saddleback Dolphin)2
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)2
Fratercula cirrhata (Tufted Puffin)3
Gadus macrocephalus (Pacific cod)2
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)4
Hippoglossus stenolepis (Pacific halibut)3
Lagenorhynchus acutus (Atlantic White-sided Dolphin)2
Lagenorhynchus australis (Peale's Dolphin)5
Lagenorhynchus obscurus (Dusky Dolphin)3
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)3
Merluccius bilinearis (Whiting)2
Merluccius hubbsi (Southwest Atlantic hake)2
Merluccius productus (Whiting)2
Morus bassanus (Northern Gannet)2
Oncorhynchus clarkii (Cutthroat trout)2
Phalacrocorax auritus (Double-crested Cormorant)3
Phalacrocorax pelagicus (Pelagic Cormorant)2
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)2
Phocoena phocoena (Harbor Porpoise)5
Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe)2
Podiceps grisegena (Red-necked Grebe)2
Polyprion americanus (Wreck-fish)2
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)3
Rissa tridactyla (Black-legged Kittiwake)2
Salilota australis (Tadpole codling)2
Saurida undosquamis (Brushtooth lizardfish)2
Schroederichthys bivius (Narrowmouthed catshark)4
Sebastes flavidus (Yellowtail rockfish)2
Theragra chalcogramma (Whiting)2
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)4
Uria aalge (Common Murre)3
Xiphias gladius (Swordfish)2
Zearaja chilensis (Yellownose skate)4

Predators

Arctocephalus forsteri (Australasian Fur Seal)[5]
Dipturus batis (Blue skate)[5]
Eumetopias jubatus (Steller Sea Lion)[6]
Gadus morhua (rock cod)[4]
Globicephala melas (Long-finned Pilot Whale)[5]
Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Bald Eagle)[5]
Homo sapiens (man)[5]
Lamna ditropis (Salmon shark)[12]
Lamna nasus (Porbeagle shark)[13]
Lophius americanus (Monkfish)[5]
Mirounga angustirostris (Northern Elephant Seal)[14]
Myxine glutinosa (Atlantic hagfish)[5]
Ophiodon elongatus (Lingcod)[5]
Phoca vitulina (Harbor Seal)[5]
Phycis blennoides (Greater fork-beard)[5]
Physeter macrocephalus (Sperm Whale)[5]
Pomatomus saltatrix (Tailor run)[5]
Prionace glauca (Tribon blou)[5]
Somniosus microcephalus (gray shark)[5]
Somniosus pacificus (Pacific Sleeper Shark)[5]
Squalus acanthias (Common spiny)[5]
Thunnus thynnus (horse mackerel)[15]

Providers

Parasite of 
Gilquinia squali[5]
Squalotrema llewellyni[5]

Consumers

Parasitized by 
Amphibdelloides maccallumi[16]
Anisakis simplex[16]
Calicotyle ramsayi[16]
Calliobothrium filicolle[16]
Chimaerarhynchus rougetae[16]
Christianella minuta <Unverified Name>[16]
Crossobothrium squali[16]
Derogenes varicus[16]
Erpocotyle abbreviata[16]
Gilquinia anteropus <Unverified Name>[16]
Gilquinia squali[16]
Gonocerca phycidis[16]
Grillotia erinaceus[16]
Hemiurus levinseni[16]
Hepatoxylon trichiuri[16]
Heterocotyle minima[16]
Mazocraes alosae[16]
Microbothrium apiculatum[16]
Otobothrium cysticum[16]
Otodistomum veliporum[16]
Pancreatonema americanum <Unverified Name>[16]
Phlyctainophora lamnae <Unverified Name>[16]
Phyllobothrium squali[16]
Probolitrema richiardii[16]
Progonus muelleri[16]
Prosorhynchus squamatus[16]
Pseudanisakis tricupola <Unverified Name>[16]
Scolex pleuronectis <Unverified Name>[16]
Squalonchocotyle abbreviata[16]
Squalonchocotyle squali[16]
Squalonchocotyle tropai[16]
Squalotrema llewellyni[16]
Steganoderma formosum[16]
Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris[16]
Trilocularia gracilis[16]

Institutions (Zoos, etc.)

    Maps
Institution Infraspecies / Breed 
Aquarium du Quebec
Biodome de Montreal
Universeum Science Center
Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Ctr

Distribution

Aegean Sea; Alaska (USA); Albania; Algeria; Angola; Argentina; Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic, Eastern Central; Atlantic, Northeast; Atlantic, Northwest; Atlantic, Southeast; Atlantic, Southwest; Atlantic, Western Central; Australia; Baltic Sea; Baral Seamount; Barents Sea; Belgium; Benguela Current; Black Sea; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; California Current; Canada; Canary Current; Canary Islands; Cantabrian Sea; Celtic-Biscay Shelf; Chile; China; Croatia; Cuba; Cyprus; Denmark; East Bering Sea; East China Sea; East Greenland Shelf/Sea; Ecliptic Seamount; Egypt; Estonia; Faeroe Islands; Falkland Is. (Malvinas); Faroe Plateau; Finland; France; Galician Shelf; Georgia; Germany, Fed. Rep.; Great Seamount; Greece; Greenland; Gulf of Alaska; Hancock Northwest Seamount; Hancock Southeast Seamount; Humboldt Current; Iberian Coastal; Iceland; Iceland Shelf/Sea; Indian Ocean, Antarctic; Indian Ocean, Eastern; Indian Ocean, Western; Ireland; Isle of Man; Israel; Italy; Japan; Kamchatka; Kerguelen Islands; Korea, Dem. People's Rep; Korea, Republic of; Kuroshio Current; Lagonoy Gulf; Latvia; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Lithuania; Malta; Mauritius; Mediterranean Sea; Mediterranean and Black Sea; Mexico; Monaco; Morocco; Namibia; Netherlands; New Zealand; New Zealand Shelf; Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf; North Sea; Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf; Norway; Norwegian Sea; Oyashio Current; Pacific Ocean; Pacific, Eastern Central; Pacific, Northeast; Pacific, Northwest; Pacific, Southeast; Pacific, Southwest; Pacific, Western Central; Patagonian Shelf; Philippines; Poland; Portugal; Professor Mesyatzev Seamount; Romania; Russian Federation; Réunion; Scotian Shelf; Sea of Azov; Sea of Japan; Sea of Marmara; Sea of Okhotsk; Serbia and Montenegro; Slovenia; South Africa; Southeast Australian Shelf; Southwest Chilean Waters; Spain; Star Seamount; Sweden; Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Tunisia; Turkey; USA (contiguous states); Ukraine; United Kingdom; Uruguay; West Bering Sea; West Greenland Shelf; Western Atlantic: Greenland to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Murmansk Coast (Russia) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Reports from off New Guinea are doubtful (Ref. 6871). Records from North Pacific refer to <i>Squalus suckleyi</i> (Ref. 85328).; Western Atlantic: Greenland to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Murmansk Coast (Russia) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Pacific: Bering Sea to New Zealand. Reports from off New Guinea are doubtful (Ref. 68; Western Atlantic: Greenland to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: Iceland and Murmansk Coast (Russia) to South Africa, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea. Western Pacific: Bering Sea to New Zealand. Reports from off New Guinea are doubtful (Ref. 6871). Eastern Pacific: Bering Sea to Chile.; Western Sahara; Yellow Sea;

Photos

Citations

Attributes / relations provided by 1Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 01, 2010 at animaldiversity.org 2de Magalhaes, J. P., and Costa, J. (2009) A database of vertebrate longevity records and their relation to other life-history traits. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22(8):1770-1774 3Riede, Klaus (2004) Global Register of Migratory Species - from Global to Regional Scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. 330 pages + CD-ROM 4Food of Northwest Atlantic Fishes and Two Common Species of Squid, Ray E. Bowman, Charles E. Stillwell, William L. Michaels, and Marvin D. Grosslein, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-155 (2000) 5Jorrit H. Poelen, James D. Simons and Chris J. Mungall. (2014). Global Biotic Interactions: An open infrastructure to share and analyze species-interaction datasets. Ecological Informatics. 6Food Web Relationships of Northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca : a Synthesis of the Available Knowledge, Charles A. Simenstad, Bruce S. Miller, Carl F. Nyblade, Kathleen Thornburgh, and Lewis J. Bledsoe, EPA-600 7-29-259 September 1979 7CephBase - Cephalopod (Octopus, Squid, Cuttlefish and Nautilus) Database 8Yick, Jonah L., Adam Barnett, and Sean R. Tracey. "The trophic ecology of two abundant mesopredators in south-east coastal waters of Tasmania, Australia." Marine Biology 159.6 (2012): 1183+. Academic OneFile. Web. 14 July 2014. 9Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Ecological Informatics 29(1): 45-56. Szoboszlai AI, Thayer JA, Wood SA, Sydeman WJ, Koehn LE (2015) Data from: Forage species in predator diets: synthesis of data from the California Current. Dryad Digital Repository. 10Feeding Spectrum and Trophic Relationships of Short-finned Squid (Illex illecebrosus) in the Northwest Atlantic, Yu. M. Froerman, NAFO Sci. Coun. Studies, 7: 67-75 (1984) 11Food habits of the broad nose skate, Bathyraja brachyurops (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae), in the south-west Atlantic, MAURO BELLEGGIA, EZEQUIEL MABRAGAÑA, DANIEL E. FIGUEROA, LORENA B. SCENNA, SANTIAGO A. BARBINI and JUAN M. DÍAZ DE ASTARLOA, SCIENTIA MARINA 72(4) December 2008, 701-710 12Predation by Salmon Sharks (Lamna ditropis) on Pacific Salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean, Kazuya Nagasawa, NPAFC Bulletin No. 1 pp. 419-433 (1998) 13Analysis of stomach contents of the porbeagle shark (Lamna nasus Bonnaterre) in the northwest Atlantic, W. N. Joyce, S. E. Campana, L. J. Natanson, N. E. Kohler, H. L. Pratt Jr, and C. F. Jensen, ICES Journal of Marine Science, 59: 1263–1269. 2002 14Mirounga angustirostris, Brent S. Stewart and Harriet R. Huber, MAMMALIAN SPECIES No. 449, pp. 1-10 (1993) 15Differences in diet of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) at five seasonal feeding grounds on the New England continental shelf, Bradford C. Chase, Fishery Bulletin 100 no2 168-80 Ap 2002 16Gibson, D. I., Bray, R. A., & Harris, E. A. (Compilers) (2005). Host-Parasite Database of the Natural History Museum, London
Ecoregions provided by World Wide Fund For Nature (WWF). WildFinder: Online database of species distributions, ver. 01.06 WWF WildFINDER
Protected Areas provided by GBIF Global Biodiversity Information Facility Biological Inventories of the World's Protected Areas in cooperation between the Information Center for the Environment at the University of California, Davis and numerous collaborators.
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